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Table 2 Summary of Efficacy Measures – Change from Baseline to Endpoint

From: Acute atomoxetine treatment of younger and older children with ADHD: A meta-analysis of tolerability and efficacy

    Baseline Change Vs. Placebo Subgroup Treatment by Subgroup
Measure Subgroup (yrs) Tx N Mean SD Mean SD ES p Valuea p Valueb p Valueb
ADHD-RS Total 6–7 ATX 176 42.8 7.9 -14.2 13.8 .77 < .001 .001 .316
   PBO 91 43.2 6.6 -4.6 10.4     
  8–12 ATX 520 40.4 8.7 -15.4 13.2 .65 < .001   
   PBO 303 40.0 8.2 -7.3 12.0     
ADHD-RS Total T-Score 6–7 ATX 176 83.3 9.6 -15.2 14.8 .75 < .001 .003 .346
   PBO 91 83.1 8.5 -4.9 11.2     
  8–12 ATX 520 81.5 11.4 -16.4 14.6 .63 < .001   
   PBO 303 81.1 10.9 -7.9 13.1     
ADHD-RS Inattentive 6–7 ATX 176 21.9 3.8 -7.2 7.5 .71 < .001 .043 .439
   PBO 91 22.1 3.7 -2.4 5.7     
  8–12 ATX 520 22.4 3.7 -8.0 7.4 .59 < .001   
   PBO 303 22.3 3.9 -3.9 6.7     
ADHD-RS Hyper/Impulsive 6–7 ATX 176 20.9 5.6 -7.0 7.2 .76 < .001 < .001 .257
   PBO 91 21.2 4.5 -2.1 5.4     
  8–12 ATX 520 18.0 6.7 -7.3 7.0 .62 < .001   
   PBO 303 17.7 6.3 -3.4 6.3     
CGI-ADHD-S 6–7 ATX 176 5.0 0.8 -1.2 1.3 .62 < .001 .010 .800
   PBO 91 5.0 0.7 -0.5 0.9     
  8–12 ATX 520 4.9 0.8 -1.4 1.3 .59 < .001   
   PBO 304 4.9 0.8 -0.7 1.1     
CPRS-R:S ADHD Index 6–7 ATX 83 27.5 6.0 -7.1 11.2 .50 .009 .723 .422
   PBO 42 28.6 5.0 -3.2 8.4     
  8–12 ATX 290 27.3 6.0 -8.1 8.7 .74 < .001   
   PBO 188 27.1 6.1 -2.1 8.5     
CPRS-R:S Cognitive 6–7 ATX 83 13.7 3.5 -3.6 6.0 .41 .033 .614 .334
   PBO 41 14.0 3.3 -1.6 4.8     
  8–12 ATX 289 13.9 3.8 -4.0 5.1 .69 < .001   
   PBO 188 13.9 3.8 -0.8 5.2     
CPRS-R:S Hyperactive 6–7 ATX 83 12.4 4.3 -3.9 5.7 .56 .004 .095 .753
   PBO 42 13.3 3.2 -1.6 4.9     
  8–12 ATX 290 10.4 5.1 -4.1 4.5 .72 < .001   
   PBO 188 10.1 4.8 -1.1 4.0     
CPRS-R:S Oppositional 6–7 ATX 83 9.4 4.6 -1.9 5.4 .31 .104 .256 .090
   PBO 42 8.3 5.0 0.1 3.8     
  8–12 ATX 290 8.7 4.7 -1.4 4.2 .05 .620   
   PBO 188 8.8 4.6 -1.2 4.1     
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; ADHD-RS = ADHD Rating Scale-IV; ANCOVA = analysis of covariance;
  2. ATX = atomoxetine; CPRS-R:S = Conners' Parent Rating Scale-revised; CGI-ADHD-S = Clinical Global Impression of ADHD Severity scale;
  3. ES = effect size; PBO = placebo; SD = standard deviation.
  4. ap values comparing ATX vs. PBO by subgroup are based on an ANCOVA on change from baseline scores with terms for baseline, protocol, and treatment.
  5. bp values for subgroup and treatment-by-subgroup interaction are based on an ANCOVA on change from baseline scores with terms for baseline, protocol, treatment, subgroup, and treatment-by-subgroup interaction.