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Table 3 Performance in all attention tasks separated for the four diagnostic groups (mean/SD)

From: Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms

TASK ASD + ASD - ADHD TD Group effects Effect Sizes
      F p  
Inhibition (Go/NoGo)        
Median 0.01 (2.76) 0.39 (1.97) 1.51 (2.24) 0.00 (1.0) 2.26 .09 ADHD < TD***, ADHD < ASD-, ASD+**
Hits - 1.27 (2.41) - 0.65 (1.99) - 1.82 (2.68) - 0.05 (1.0) 2.56 .06 ADHD < ASD-, TD**; ASD+ < TD**
False alarms - 0.12 (1.06) - 0.19 (1.28) - 1.21 (1.15) 0.01 (1.0) 4.78 .004 ADHD < ASD+, ASD-, TD***
Omissions - 0.81 (1.41) - 0.02 (1.28) - 1.42 (1.61) 0.02 (1.0) 5.02 .003 ADHD < ASD-, TD***; ASD+ < ASD-, TD**
Flexibility (ID/ED)        
Stages 0.47 (0.89) 0.31 (0.74) 0.16 (1.01) - 0.05 (1.0) 1.16 .33 TD < ASD+ **
Errors 0.02 (1.32) 0.23 (1.07) - 0.06 (1.71) 0.00 (1.0) 0.11 .94 -
Test duration - 0.83 (1.94) 0.02 (1.21) - 0.68 (2.36) 0.01 (1.0) 1.28 .28 ASD+ < ASD-, TD**
Working Memory (SWM)        
Errors - 0.32 (1.22) - 0.62 (1.31) - 0.88 (0.87) 0.01 (1.0) 2.33 .08 ADHD < TD***, ASD- < TD**
Strategies 0.27 (1.33) - 0.15 (1.26) - 0.51 (0.72) 0.01 (1.0) 1.79 .15 ADHD < ASD+, TD**
Test duration - 0.51 (1.47) - 0.06 (0.94) - 0.37 (0.78) 0.01 (1.0) 0.92 .43 -
Planning (SOC)        
MITT 0.07 (1.09) - 0.53 (1.91) 0.39 (1.15) 0.00 (1.0) 1.61 .19 ASD- < ADHD**
MSTT - 0.53 (4.12) - 1.01 (2.58) - 0.33 (3.22) 0.00 (1.0) 0.39 .75 ASD- < TD**
Problems solved 0.46 (1.18) 0.09 (1.31) 0.05 (1.11) 0.01 (1.0) 0.68 .56 -
Test duration - 0.91 (2.38) - 0.54 (1.87) - 0.32 (1.45) 0.07 (1.0) 1.26 .29 ASD+ < TD**
  1. Effect sizes: (mean-differences in independent groups)*d > 0.2; **d > 0.5; ***d > 0.8
  2. Note: ASD+ = ASD with ADHD; ASD- = ASD without ADHD; ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; TD = Typically developing group, MITT = Mean Initial thinking time; MSTT = Mean subsequent thinking time