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Table 2 Mean raw scores (M) and standard deviations (SD) of ITIA conceptualized as resilience factor among children (n= 80) divided into subgroups with children in the traumatized parents group without PTSD-related symptoms (n = 9), children in the traumatized parents with PTSD-related symptoms (n = 31), and children of non-traumatized parents (n = 40).

From: Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents

ITIA variables Traumatized Non-PTSD- related symptom A Traumatized PTSD-related symptoms B Non-Traumatized C    Post- hoc test p < 0.01
  M SD M SD M SD F p  
Psychological wellbeing 13.8 7.9 9.0 8.1 15.1 7.8 1.1 0.05 C > B
Physical components 16.2 6.8 16.4 6.8 17.1 7.4 0.6 n. s  
Relation to family 16.5 6.5 17.9 7.1 20.0 7.4 2.4 n. s  
Relation to others 13.5 5.5 9.9 6.6 13.8 6.8 0.9 n. s  
ITIA Total score 69.8 29.7 59.9 31.4 80.2 30.8 1.4 0.05 C > B
  1. Note*: A = Children without PTSD-related symptoms in the traumatized parents group;
  2. B = Children with PTSD-related symptoms in the traumatized parents group;
  3. C = Children in the non-traumatized parents group.
  4. Note**: The ITIA's sub-scale "Relation to family" C > A+B, t-value 1.9; p =< 0.06 also the ITIA's "Total score" C > A+B, t-value 2.1; p < 0.05