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Table 3 Means and standard deviations of outcome variables, by martial arts group, kindergarten to third grade sample (n = 8851)

From: Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Evidence from the ECLS-K

Group Grade K Behavior:
mean (sd)
Grade 3 Behavior
mean (sd)
N for Group
Martial arts in K, not 3 3.28(0.46) 3.16 (0.57) 212
Martial arts in 3, not K 3.15 (0.51) 3.12 (0.52) 584
Martial arts both K and 3 3.25 (0.51) 3.17 (0.52) 80
Martial arts Neither 3.26 (0.50) 3.19 (0.52) 7975