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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio estimates of self-reported past-year drunkenness in the last 12 months, by gender

From: Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

  Male Female
  OR 95% CI for OR OR 95% CI for OR OR 95% CI for OR OR 95% CI for OR
Adverse childhood experiences         
Frequency of food shortage (ref. not often/never)         
   Very often 0.98 [0.68,1.41] 0.81 [0.54,1.23] 1.2 [0.73,1.95] 1.25 [0.74,2.11]
   Somewhat often 1.12 [0.84,1.48] 1.01 [0.74,1.38] 0.98 [0.64,1.50] 0.97 [0.64,1.49]
Lived in a house with an alcoholic before age 10 years 2.54** [1.95,3.31] 2.33** [1.74,3.11] 3.07** [2.18,4.32] 2.68** [1.89,3.80]
Physically abused before age 10 years 1.53** [1.17,2.00] 1.49** [1.13,1.97] 2.08** [1.44,3.00] 1.94** [1.35,2.80]
Coerced into having first sex 1.26 [0.50,3.16] 1.03 [0.39,2.72] 1.91* [1.14,3.20] 1.67 [0.93,3.00]
Sociodemographics         
Age    1.24** [1.17,1.32]    1.03 [0.93,1.13]
Importance of religion (ref. very important)         
   Somewhat important    1.51* [1.05,2.18]    0.93 [0.57,1.51]
   Not important/no religion    1.35 [0.79,2.33]    1.33 [0.67,2.65]
In school (ref. out of school)    0.56** [0.41,0.77]    0.51** [0.33,0.78]
Female-headed household (ref. male-headed household)    0.8 [0.54,1.18]    1.31 [0.87,1.97]
Living arrangements (ref. both parents)         
   Mother only    1.18 [0.77,1.83]    0.75 [0.44,1.28]
   Father only    0.82 [0.53,1.26]    0.92 [0.39,2.19]
   Neither parent    1.07 [0.77,1.49]    0.79 [0.49,1.28]
Rural resident (ref. urban resident)    0.68 [0.47,1.00]    1.26 [0.81,1.95]
Ever married (ref. never married)    1.78 [0.77,4.13]    1.01 [0.54,1.89]
Country of survey (ref. Burkina Faso)         
   Ghana    2.41** [1.52,3.81]    2.35** [1.47,3.76]
   Malawi    2.00* [1.17,3.41]    0.69 [0.28,1.70]
   Uganda    3.73** [2.44,5.70]    2.81** [1.70,4.63]
Constant 0.07** [0.06,0.09] 0.00** [0.00,0.02] 0.03** [0.02,0.04] 0.01** [0.00,0.07]
N 4,968   4,943   4,851   4,832  
  1. Sample sizes are weighted and coefficients provided are odds ratios
  2. p < 0.10; *p < .05; ** p < .01