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Table 2 Frequencies or mean values for demographic variables in participating and non-participating groups

From: Methodological challenges in following up patients of a hospital child protection team: is there a recruitment bias?

Variable Complete participation Telephone interview Refusal No contact χ 2 test or ANOVA
  (n = 42) (n = 39) (n = 50) (n = 49) χ 2 (df) or F (df) p
Gender (%)       
   Female 24 (57) 19 (49) 25 (50) 30 (61) 1.95 (3) 0.584
   Male 18 (43) 20 (51) 25 (50) 19 (39)   
Age at follow-up (SD) 8.4 (3.8) 9.9 (3.6) 8.0 (4.4) 8.5 (4.4) 1.80 (3) 0.149
Citizenship (%)       
   Swiss 23 (55) 29 (74) 41 (82) 23 (47) 16.67 (3) 0.001***
   Foreign nationality 19 (45) 10 (26) 9 (18) 26 (53)   
Family status (%)       
   Two caregivers 26 (65) 22 (59) 25 (53) 27 (56) 0.46 (3)1 0.928
   Single caregiver 13 (32) 15 (41) 15 (32) 17 (35)   
   Out-of-home placement1 1 (3) 0 (0) 7 (15) 4 (8)   
Place of residence (%)       
   City of Zurich 15 (36) 12 (31) 14 (28) 25 (51) 6.57 (3) 0.087
   Outside of city of Zurich 27 (64) 27 (69) 36 (72) 24 (49)   
Moves (%)       
   Has not moved 27 (64) 29 (74) 36 (72) 31 (63) 1.86 (3) 0.601
   Moved 15 (36) 10 (26) 14 (28) 18 (37)   
  1. Note. Percentages are added in columns; 1 the out-of-home-placement category was excluded from χ2test, as too many cell counts were below 5; ***p < .001.
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