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Table 2 Demographic and Hospital Characteristics, by Age Group and Cohort

From: Economic burden and comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among pediatric patients hospitalized in the United States

  Patients Aged 6-11 Years Patients Aged 12-17 Years
  Patients With a Secondary ADHD Diagnosis Patients Without an ADHD Diagnosis   Patients With a Secondary ADHD Diagnosis Patients Without an ADHD Diagnosis  
  N % N % P Value N % N % P Value
Total sample 74,438   785,229    124,407   1,047,445   
Age           
Mean (SE) 8.74 0.05 8.28 0.02 <.001 14.26 0.04 14.72 0.02 <.001
Gender           
Male 58,883 79.10 451,525 57.50 <.001 80,972 65.09 459,199 43.84 <.001
Female 15,426 20.72 315,639 40.20 <.001 43,354 34.85 580,543 55.42 <.001
Missing 129 0.17 18,066 2.30 <.001 81 0.06 7,703 0.74 <.001
Race           
White 34,246 46.01 275,189 35.05 <.001 62,186 49.99 470,434 44.91 <.001
Black 11,515 15.47 133,941 17.06 .762 12,088 9.72 110,499 10.55 <.001
Hispanic 5,262 7.07 130,379 16.60 <.001 6,124 4.92 120,415 11.50 <.001
Asian or Pacific Islander 211 0.28 11,179 1.42 <.001 333 0.27 10,477 1.00 <.001
Native American 166 0.22 3,205 0.41 .030 190 0.15 3,909 0.37 <.001
Other 2,445 3.29 27,444 3.50 .280 3,264 2.62 29,546 2.82 .137
Missing 20,593 27.66 203,892 25.97 .408 40,223 32.33 302,164 28.85 .014
Primary expected payer           
Medicare 68 0.09 1,108 0.14 .005 217 0.17 1,785 0.17 .004
Medicaid 43,379 58.28 317,705 40.46 <.001 52,562 42.25 352,247 33.63 .582
Private Insurance 26,091 35.05 399,329 50.86 <.001 62,702 50.40 591,369 56.46 .003
Self-pay 1,377 1.85 36,973 4.71 <.001 2,718 2.19 49,774 4.75 <.001
No charge 90 0.12 1,787 0.23 .029 150 0.12 2,523 0.24 .001
Other 3,250 4.37 26,700 3.40 .202 5,597 4.50 47,095 4.50 .006
Missing 184 0.25 1,627 0.21 .556 459 0.37 2,652 0.25 .234
Admission source           
Emergency room 28,408 38.16 465,108 59.23 <.001 52,763 42.41 570,497 54.47 .006
Another hospital 3,533 4.75 32,481 4.14 .004 8,057 6.48 61,063 5.83 <.001
Another facility 1,658 2.23 7,966 1.01 .002 3,164 2.54 19,516 1.86 <.001
Other 39,427 52.97 268,892 34.24 <.001 58,447 46.98 379,490 36.23 <.001
Missing 1,411 1.90 10,783 1.37 .213 1,975 1.59 16,879 1.61 .935
Admission type           
Emergency 32,191 43.25 409,196 52.11 .803 58,861 47.31 547,153 52.24 <.001
Urgent 24,817 33.34 171,006 21.78 <.001 40,116 32.25 266,490 25.44 .001
Elective 15,205 20.43 102,489 13.05 .519 20,149 16.20 129,372 12.35 <.001
Newborn 176 0.24 938 0.12 .212 355 0.29 1,581 0.15 .170
Other 5 0.01 5 0.00 .120 283 0.23 2,342 0.22 .480
Missing 2,044 2.75 101,595 12.94 <.001 4,642 3.73 100,507 9.60 <.001
Discharge disposition           
Routine 70,073 94.14 757,615 96.48 .001 112,805 90.67 966,177 92.24 <.001
Short-term hospital 625 0.84 9,712 1.24 .004 1,557 1.25 12,663 1.21 .625
Skilled-nursing facility -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Intermediate care facility -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Another facility 2,685 3.61 6,177 0.79 <.001 8,287 6.66 48,417 4.62 <.001
Home health care 303 0.41 9,458 1.20 <.001 531 0.43 9,232 0.88 <.001
Other 500 0.67 1,434 0.18 <.001 817 0.66 8,025 0.77 .001
Died 9 0.01 474 0.06 <.001 10 0.01 333 0.03 <.001
Missing 243 0.33 360 0.05 .017 399 0.32 2,597 0.25 .021
Geographic region           
Northeast 14,964 20.10 173,830 22.14 .504 25,529 20.52 233,768 22.32 .232
Midwest 23,426 31.47 163,678 20.84 <.001 45,597 36.65 291,401 27.82 <.001
South 30,752 41.31 292,322 37.23 .099 43,141 34.68 352,187 33.62 .068
West 5,296 7.11 155,398 19.79 <.001 10,139 8.15 170,089 16.24 <.001
Location           
Rural 4,755 6.39 103,181 13.14 .001 9,136 7.34 109,287 10.43 .001
Urban 69,659 93.58 681,728 86.82 .001 115,262 92.65 937,891 89.54 .001
Missing 24 0.03 320 0.04 .590 9 0.01 267 0.03 <.001
Hospital status           
Non-teaching 28,644 38.48 341,740 43.52 .835 56,389 45.33 497,552 47.50 .350
Teaching 45,770 61.49 443,170 56.44 .832 68,009 54.67 549,626 52.47 .341
Missing 24 0.03 320 0.04 .590 9 0.01 267 0.03 <.001
Hospital bed size           
Small 7,762 10.43 115,576 14.72 .017 12,186 9.80 112,938 10.78 .182
Medium 19,594 26.32 220,380 28.07 .307 28,910 23.24 273,046 26.07 .010
Large 47,058 63.22 448,953 57.17 .017 83,302 66.96 661,195 63.12 .024
Missing 24 0.03 320 0.04 .590 9 0.01 267 0.03 <.001
Year discharged           
2000 9,041 12.15 109,581 13.96 .016 13,682 11.00 149,628 14.29 <.001
2001 11,574 15.55 107,463 13.69 .909 17,029 13.69 160,922 15.36 .278
2002 9,100 12.22 107,554 13.70 .206 14,294 11.49 137,383 13.12 .041
2003 11,281 15.16 117,210 14.93 .798 22,485 18.07 163,676 15.63 .065
2004 11,770 15.81 109,515 13.95 .059 19,330 15.54 152,801 14.59 .095
2005 11,917 16.01 127,419 16.23 .512 19,700 15.83 149,631 14.29 .103
2006 9,755 13.10 106,487 13.56 .402 17,887 14.38 133,405 12.74 .022
  1. ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; SE = standard error.