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Table 2 Differences in stability, compared pairwise between current parenting dimensions (columns) and personality traits or emotional symptoms (rows).

From: Group and individual stability of three parenting dimensions

   Current self-reported parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument)
   Warmth Protectiveness Authoritarianism
Personality traits (NEO-PI)    
N Observed stability Δ r = -.19, p < .001 Δ r = -.28, p < .001 Δ r = -.37, p < .001
  'Changed' P|Δ|>1z +14%, p < .001 +18%, p < .001 +23%, p < .001
  'No change'P|Δ|<.5z -10%, p < .010 -17%, p < .001 -43%, p < .001
A Observed stability Δ r = -.15, p < .01 Δ r = -.24, p < .001 Δ r = -.33, p < .001
  'Changed' P|Δ|>1z +11%, p < .010 +15%, p < .001 +20%, p < .001
  'No change'P|Δ|<.5z -2%, ns. -9%, p < .010 -35%, p < .001
O Observed stability Δ r = -.14, p < .01 Δ r = -.23, p < .001 Δ r = -.32, p < .001
  'Changed' P|Δ|>1z +11%, p < .010 +15%, p < .001 +20%, p < .001
  'No change'P|Δ|<.5z +2%, ns -5%, ns. -31%, p < .001
Anxiety/Depression (HADS)    
A Observed stability Δr = -.07, ns Δ r = -.14, p < .025 Δ r = -.21, p = .001
  'Changed' P|Δ|>1z +5%, ns +9%, ns +14%, p = .037
  'No change'P|Δ|<.5z +9%, ns. .+2%, ns. -34%, p < .001
D Observed stability Δr = +.02, ns Δr = -.07, ns Δ r = -.16, p < .025
  'Changed' P|Δ|>1z -2%, ns +2.1%, ns +7%, p < .05
  'No change'P|Δ|<.5z -0.2%, ns. -7.0%, ns. -32.6%, p < .001
  1. Observed stability correlations and the prevalence of individual-level change are compared separately.
  2. NEO-PI = Big Five Personality Inventory (short version), HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, N = neuroticism, A = agreeableness, O = Openness, Δr = stability correlation difference, Δ% = rate difference - one-sample binomial test, ns. = non-significant, p = One-sided test of statistical significance, P|Δ|>1z = rate of absolute change > 1.0z, P|Δ|<0.5z = rate of absolute change < 0.5z