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Table 1 Descriptives and mean scores (SD) on the mother-son relationship characteristics for each subsample

From: Ethnic differences in the mother-son relationship of incarcerated and non-incarcerated male adolescents in the Netherlands

  ND N = 208 NM N = 116 ID N = 63 IM N = 66 Range (Min - Max) Skew-ness Kurtosis
Affection Expression 38.75a (7.57) 36.38b (10.30) 35.90b,c (8.84) 40.47a (8.27) 45 (9 - 54) -.570 .127
Discipline 14.67a (5.16) 18.36b (7.65) 17.14b (6.30) 21.41c (7.97) 25 (5 - 30) -.044 -.909
Monitoring 19.82a (2.22) 18.20b,c (4.28) 17.58c (3.90) 19.07a,b (5.42) 18 (6 - 24) -.967 1.242
Conflicts issues outside home 14.56a (4.66) 15.13a (6.44) 17.49b (6.26) 17.56b (7.77) 28 (7 - 35) .701 .169
Conflicts in-home issues 13.72a (3.82) 11.59b (4.62) 12.89a,c (4.11) 8.94d (4.01) 24 (6 - 30) .575 .105
  1. Note. ND = Non-incarcerated Dutch, NM = Non-incarcerated Moroccan, ID = Incarcerated Dutch, IM = Incarcerated Moroccan; a,b,c,d Different superscripts refer to significant differences (p < 0.05) between the groups (within rows), tested by means of MANOVA.