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Table 2 Review of diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder before (t1) and one year after therapy (t3) in the pilot study of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A)

From: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

Diagnostic DSM-IV Criteria of borderline personality disorder Number of adolescents satisfying this criterion at the start of therapy (t1) Number of adolescents satisfying this criterion one year after therapy (t3)
Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment 9 3
A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation 9 1
Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self 8 2
Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e. g. spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving and binge eating) 8 2
Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats or self-mutilating behavior 12 5
Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e. g. intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely for more than a few days) 12 10
Chronic feelings of emptiness 8 3
Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty in controlling anger (e. g. frequent displays of temper, constant anger and recurrent physical fights) 4 5
Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms) 0 2