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Table 4 Development of psychopathology from the beginning of therapy to one year after its end

From: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

Instrument   Before therapy (t1) Four weeks after therapy (t2) One year after therapy (t3) Statistics (t1to t3)
   N Mean Value SD Mean Value SD Mean Value SD Wilcoxon-Test Effect size d
SCL-90 R Global Severity Index 11 0.93 0.38 0.57 0.21 0.44 0.33 p = 0.008** 1.30
  Positive Symptom Total 11 44.4 12.9 36.3 10.4 27.1 16.5 p = 0.016* 1.08
  Positive Symptom Distress Index 11 1.84 0.39 1.4 0.19 1.37 0.29 p = 0.013* 1.27
  G1 Somatization 11 0.65 0.43 0.5 0.49 0.36 0.28 p = 0.028* 0.68
  G2 Obsessive-Compulsive 11 0.99 0.55 0.6 0.38 0.6 0.4 p = 0.052 0.70
  G3 Interpersonal Sensitivity 11 1.21 0.51 0.92 0.49 0.46 0.44 p = 0.011* 1.49
  G4 Depression 11 1.63 0.6 0.79 0.47 0.48 0.4 p = 0.004** 2.14
  G5 Anxiety 11 0.84 0.39 0.4 0.26 0.35 0.47 p = 0.014* 1.05
  G6 Hostility 11 1.08 0.59 0.57 0.45 0.85 0.73 p = 0.563 0.24
  G7 Phobic Anxiety 11 0.43 0.61 0.25 0.42 0.29 0.5 p = 0.572 0.23
  G8 Paranoid Ideation 11 0.54 0.32 0.52 0.37 0.32 0.32 p = 0.233 0.58
  G9 Psychoticism 11 0.42 0.4 0.3 0.21 0.18 0.22 p = 0.075 0.64
  S10 Additional Items 11 9.42 5.04 5.88 2.85 4.91 3.65 p = 0.032* 1.01
YSR Global Score 11 71.5 11.3 45.5 22.6 41.8 19.2 p = 0.003** 1.82
  Internalizing Behavior 11 26.8 5.3 15.9 8.1 14.6 9.3 p = 0.007** 1.54
  Externalizing Behavior 11 19.7 8.4 15.2 9.5 14.5 7.4 p = 0.008** 0.57
  Social Withdrawal 11 7.08 2.61 4.38 3.16 3.91 2.77 p = 0.016* 1.13
  Somatic Complaints 11 4.0 2.63 2.63 2.13 3.09 2.94 p = 0.505 0.26
  Anxious/Depressed 11 17.08 4.5 9.75 5.2 8.09 7.03 p = 0.008** 1.47
  Social Problems 11 4.0 2.22 2.13 1.64 1.91 2.21 p = 0.058 0.86
  Schizoid/Obsessive 11 3.0 2.34 1.5 1.51 0.91 1.45 p = 0.011* 1.04
  Attention Problems 11 8.67 2.35 3.88 2.03 4.45 3.14 p = 0.005** 1.46
  Delinquent Behaviors 11 6.42 3.26 5.0 2.62 4.55 2.07 p = 0.041* 0.54
  Aggressive Behaviors 11 13.25 5.71 10.13 7.02 9.91 5.74 p = 0.014* 0.54
DIKJ Average Score Per Item 10 0.78 0.2 0.45 0.21 0.41 0.23 p = 0.022* 1.51
  1. SD = Standard deviation; * = Significance (bilateral) ≤ 0.05; ** = Significance (bilateral) ≤ 0.01; SCL-90-R = Symptom Checklist 90 revised; YSR = Youth Self Report of the Child Behavior Checklist; DIKJ = Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents