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Table 1 Descriptives and odds ratios of characteristics of controls, one-time offenders and re-offenders

From: Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

     Group comparisons (odds ratio (95%CI))   
  Control (n = 40) % One-time offenders (n = 65) % Re-offenders (n = 35) % Control vs one-time offenders One-time offenders vs re-offenders Re-offenders vs control
Individual characteristics       
SDQ (child/parent report)       
Emotional problem 33.3/5.0 14.3/9.2 9.4/5.7 33 (.12-.94)*   .21 (.10-.83)*
Behavioural problems 15.2/12.8 12.5/18.8 9.4/5.7   26 (.06-1.2)  
Hyperactivity 0.0/5.0 3.6/7.7 3.1/8.6    
Poor relationship with peers 18.2/15 17.9/23.1 6.3/20.0    
   Repeated school year 22.6 16.4 37.5   3.1 (1.1-8.4)*  
   Reading problems 41.4 56.9 81.3   3.3 (1.2-9.4)* 6.1 (1.9-19.5)**
Affiliation delinquent peers 15.2 21.4 37.5    3.4 (1.0-11.1)*
Family characteristics       
   >3 children at home 57.5 55.4 74.3   2.3 (1.0-5.7)  
   Older brother 51.5 62.5 87.5   4.2 (1.3-13.7)* 6.6 (1.9-23.0)**
   Single parent 5.0 33.8 22.9    5.6 (1.1-28.6)*
   Financial problems 42.5 72.3 69.7 9.7(2.1-44.1)***   3.1 (1.2-8.2)*
   (Any) household member arrest 27.5 41.5 62.9 3.5 (1.5-8.1)** 2.4 (1.0-5.5)* 4.5 (1.7-11.8)**
Arrested brother 15.0 32.3 48.6    5.4 (1.8-16.0)**
Arrested father 10.0 13.8 14.3 2.7 (1.0-7.4)   
# total arrests household ¹ 0.7(1.4) 1.9(4.4) 3.9(5.8)a**b†    
   Low positive parenting       
child report 53.1 28.6 28.1    .35 (.12-.97)*
parent report 37.5 35.4 25.7 .35 (.14-.87)*   
   Low parenting control       
child report 50.0 33.9 31.3    
parent report 20.0 10.9 20.0    
   Domestic violence 35.0 36.9 37.1    
Acculturation characteristics       
   Both parents born in Morocco 92.5 76.4 86.7 .26 (.07-1.0)*   
   Orientation Dutch society ¹       
child (range 1-5) 3.48(.79)c*** 4.15(.83) 4.21(.64)    
parent (range 1-5) 3.91(.76) 3.86(.92) 4.30(.78)d*    
   Orientation Moroccan society ¹       
child (range 1-5) 4.08(.82)c* 4.52(.75) 4.53(.53)    
parent (range 1-5) 4.66(.44) 4.55(.64) 4.70(.67)    
   Considers Dutch child 21.2 29.8 40.0    
   Considers Dutch parent 20.0 12.7 28.6   2.8 (1.0-7.8)  
   Dutch friends child 78.8 66.7 76.7    
   Dutch friends parent 22.5 33.3 57.1   2.6 (1.1-6.1)* 5.3 (1.8-15.5)**
  1. † p < .1, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. Due to rounding error some of the CI include 1.0. ¹ = mean (sd), a = difference between re- offenders and control group, b = approaching significant differences between re-offenders and one-time offenders, c = difference between controls and re-offenders/one-time offenders. d = difference between re-offenders and one-time offenders