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Table 3 Odds ratios for social/legal agency referrals, with 95% confidence interval (CI). N = 2054

From: Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

  Model I
Empty model
Model II Model III Model IV
Fixed effects     
Individual-level variables     
Ethnicity     
   Swedish   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Nordic countries (other than Sweden)   1.41 (0.65-3.06) 1.16 (0.51-2.63) 1.04 (0.46-2.36)
   Other European countries   2.19 (1.13-4.24)* 2.21 (1.10-4.44)* 1.84 (0.86-3.94)
   Asia   1.82 (1.09-3.05)* 2.03 (1.22-3.38)** 1.50 (0.85-2.67)
   South America   1.70 (0.77-3.75) 1.32 (0.58-2.97) 1.06 (0.45-2.50)
   Africa   4.57 (2.43-8.60)*** 4.51 (2.30-8.85)*** 3.55 (1.77-7.10)**
Gender     
   Girl    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Boy    1.09 (0.76-1.57) 1.08 (0.76-1.54)
Age    0.78 (0.71-0.85)*** 0.77 (0.71-0.85)***
Family structure     
   Living with both parents    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Not living with both parents    3.11 (2.12-4.56)*** 2.92 (1.98-4.29)***
Neighbourhood-level variable     
Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation     1.29 (1.10-1.52)**
Random effects     
Between neighbourhood variance (SE)1 0.088 (0.296) 0.024 (0.154) 0.007 (0.090) 0.008 (0.091)
ICC (%) 2.6 0.7 0.2 0.2
Explained variance (%) - 73.1 92.3 92.3
  1. ***p < .001, **p < .01, *p <.05. 1 Standard error.