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Table 4 Odds ratios for school referrals, with 95% confidence interval (CI). N = 2054

From: Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

  Model I
Empty model
Model II Model III Model IV
Fixed effects     
Individual-level variables     
Ethnicity     
   Swedish   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Nordic countries (other than Sweden)   1.51 (0.88-2.58) 1.54 (0.87-2.72) 1.46 (0.80-2.64)
   Other European countries   1.12 (0.64-1.93) 1.06 (0.62-1.80) 0.99 (0.61-1.60)
   Asia   1.57 (1.11-2.22)* 1.66 (1.17-2.34)** 1.48 (1.07-2.05)*
   South America   2.08 (1.32-3.28)** 1.94 (1.23-3.07)** 1.79 (1.13-2.85)*
   Africa   1.85 (0.88-3.90) 2.00 (0.97-4.15) 1.81 (0.84-3.90)
Gender     
   Girl    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Boy    1.45 (1.15-1.83)** 1.45 (1.15-1.82)**
Age    0.84 (0.79-0.90)*** 0.84 (0.79-0.90)***
Family structure     
   Living with both parents    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Not living with both parents    0.76 (0.63-0.93)** 0.74 (0.61-0.90)**
Neighbourhood-level variable     
Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation     1.11 (0.99-1.24)
Random effects     
Between-neighbourhood variance (SE)1 0.052 (0.228) 0.022 (0.149) 0.015 (0.124) 0.006 (0.080)
ICC (%) 1.6 0.7 0.5 0.2
Explained variance (%) - 56.3 68.8 87.5
  1. ***p <.001, **p <.01, *p <.05. 1 Standard error.