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Table 1 Psychological reactions at three assessments after a school-bus crash

From: A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

  9 Months 4 years 20 years
Reactions Total
(n = 102)
Directly affected
(n = 10)
Indirectly affected
(n = 92)
RR [95%CI] Indirectly affected
(n = 51)
Indirectly affected
(n = 33)
Sadness 70 (69%) 9 (90%) 61 (66%) 1.2 [0.7-2.0] 21 (42%)* 6 (18%)*
Avoidance 60 (59%) 8 (80%) 52 (59%) 1.4 [0.99-2.0] 15 (29%)** 4 (12%)
Feara 23 (23%) 2 (20%) 21 (23%) 0.99 [0.7-1.4] 11 (21%) -
Guilt 19 (18%) 6 (60%) 12 (13%) 4.6 [2.2-9.6]** 13 (25%) 3 (9%)*
Intrusions 17 (17%) 1 (10%) 16 (17%) 0.93 [0.7-1.2] 9 (17%) 5 (15%)
Nightmares 13 (13%) 5 (50%) 8 (9%) 5.8 [2.3-14.2]** 6 (12%) 1 (3%)*
  1. Note. The risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) compared the prevalence of reactions at 9 months in directly and indirectly affected groups. Asterisks at 4 and 20 years indicate a statistically significant difference in prevalence of reactions in the indirectly affected participants compared with the previous assessment.
  2. aNot assessed at 20 years.
  3. *p< .05. **p < .01.