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Table 1 Clinical factors significantly associated with self-injury with and/or without suicidal ideation

From: The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

Factors associated with NSSI + SA Factors associated with NSSI Factors associated with SA
Depressive symptoms [11, 12, 34] Less suicidal ideation [12] Depressive symptoms [12, 36]
Suicidal ideation [6, 26, 34] Interpersonal chaos [35] More stressful life events [24, 36]
Fewer reasons for living [6] Physical abuse [9] Exposure to a suicide attempt [24, 36]
Anhedonia [6, 26] Any maltreatment [9] Suicidal ideation [36]
Negative self-evaluation [6, 26]   Anxious symptoms [36]
Impulsivity [34]   Substance use [36]
Hopelessness [34]   MDD [12]
Loneliness [11]   PTSD [12]
Anger [11]   Confusion about self [35]
Confusion about self [35]   Fewer family relationships [36]
Less self-esteem [26]   Physical abuse [24]
Risk taking [11]   Death of a friend [24]
Reckless behavior [11]   Worries about sexual identity [24]
ODD [11]   
MDD [11, 12]   
Dysthymia [11]   
Alcohol use [11]   
PTSD [12]   
Sexual abuse [9]   
Physical abuse [9]   
Any maltreatment [9]   
Less parental support [26]   
  1. Note. NSSI = Non-suicidal self-injury. SA = Suicide attempt. NSSI + SA = histories of both NSSI and SA. ODD = Oppositional defiant disorder. MDD = Major depressive disorder. PTSD = Post-traumatic stress disorder