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Table 1 Differentiated scale reliabilities α and systematic mean score (M) differences with associated effect sizes  d  concerning gender (girls N = 192, boys N = 165) and age group (12–14 N = 149, 15–18 N = 208)

From: Assessment of identity development and identity diffusion in adolescence - Theoretical basis and psychometric properties of the self-report questionnaire AIDA

  gender differences age differences
  Girls Boys   12-14 15-18  
  α M (SD) α M (SD) d α M (SD) α M (SD) d
AIDA total score: Identity Diffusion .94 78.12 (32.60) .93 61.60 (27.51) 0.55 .92 70.85 (28.92) .95 70.22 (33.15) 0.02
1. Discontinuity .87 32.85 (14.73) .83 26.74 (12.32) 0.45 .82 30.30 (12.91) .89 29.83 (14.74) 0.03
1.1 attributes .72 14.24 (5.64) .75 13.00 (6.19) 0.21 .70 13.87 (5.91) .75 13.53 (5.95) 0.06
1.2 relationships .77 8.64 (6.21) .74 6.44 (5.57) 0.37 .69 7.79 (5.69) .80 7.50 (6.24) 0.05
1.3 emotional .76 9.97 (5.39) .73 7.30 (4.58) 0.53 .73 8.65 (5.22) .78 8.80 (5.20) 0.03
2. Incoherence .91 45.27 (19.64) .92 34.86 (17.69) 0.56 .90 40.55 (18.58) .93 40.39 (20.09) 0.01
2.1 consistent self .87 16.23 (9.00) .82 11.47 (7.13) 0.59 .82 13.94 (7.90) .89 14.10 (8.95) 0.02
2.2 autonomy .79 17.06 (7.96) .84 13.93 (7.72) 0.40 .81 15.66 (8.27) .82 15.58 (7.82) 0.01
2.3 cognitive .74 11.98 (5.65) .75 9.45 (5.39) 0.46 .71 10.95 (5.69) .80 10.72 (5.65) 0.04