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Table 4 Different mean scores (M) and standard deviations (SD) between the school sample and the clinical subsample with personality disorders (PD) and associated effect size  d 

From: Assessment of identity development and identity diffusion in adolescence - Theoretical basis and psychometric properties of the self-report questionnaire AIDA

  M (SD) N = 305school M (SD) N = 20clin-PD Effect size d*
AIDA total score: 65.87 (26.26) 129.75 (32.57) d = 2.17
Identity Diffusion    
1. Discontinuity 27.72 (11.49) 56.20 (14.74) d = 2.17
1.1 attributes 12.95 (5.29) 20.75 (7.16) d = 1.25
1.2 relationships 6.48 (4.78) 19.65 (6.82) d = 2.27
1.3 emotional self refl. 8.30 (4.57) 15.80 (5.95) d = 1.43
2. Incoherence 38.15 (16.85) 73.55 (19.65) d = 1.94
2.1 consistent self 12.65 (7.09) 30.95 (7.20) d = 2.56
2.2 autonomy 15.21 (7.37) 24.30 (10.04) d = 1.04
2.3 cognitive self-refl. 10.29 (5.14) 18.30 (6.82) d = 1.34
  1. * = Significance of all score differences were p < .001.