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Table 2 Social and emotional difficulties and SDQ items for subjects with ADHD

From: Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

  Missed School Days (>2 weeks) ER Visits (≥2 visits) HCP Visits (≥6 visits)
All ADHD Subjects 8.4% 11.1% 30.9%
Social and Emotional Difficulties Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI] Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI] Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI]
 Anxiety/stress in past 12 months 14.2 5.7 3.4 [2.2, 5.1] 17.4 8.2 2.1 [1.2, 3.6] 51.9 21.4 2.9 [2.0, 4.4]
 Depression in past 12 months 25.7 4.8 10.1 [5.7, 17.8] 26.5 7.8 3.5 [2.0, 6.4] 72.3 22.5 7.4 [4.3, 12.7]
 Phobias/fears in past 12 months 33.0 6.5 10.4 [4.2, 26.2] 22.6 10.2 2.4 [1.0, 5.4] 53.2 29.2 3.0 [1.3, 7.2]
Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire* Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI] Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI] Yes (%) No (%) OR [95% CI]
 SDQ 1 - Not well behaved 22.4 7.5 5.5 [2.2, 13.8] 30.3 9.5 5.2 [2.0, 13.5] 37.4 30.6 1.4 [0.7, 2.9]
 SDQ 2 - Often seems worried 13.4 4.1 3.2 [2.1, 4.8] 16.7 5.7 2.6 [1.4, 4.7] 42.0 21.3 2.2 [1.5, 3.1]
 SDQ 3 - Unhappy/depressed 17.0 5.3 3.9 [2.3, 6.4] 19.9 7.6 2.2 [1.3, 3.8] 52.5 23.3 2.6 [1.7, 3.8]
 SDQ 4 - Gets along better with adults than children 7.6 9.2 0.7 [0.4, 1.3] 9.9 11.7 0.9 [0.5, 1.6] 29.4 32.1 1.0 [0.6, 1.5]
 SDQ 5 - Doesn’t have good attention 12.1 5.7 2.9 [1.8, 4.6] 15.4 7.4 2.5 [1.6, 4.1] 37.9 25.5 1.5 [1.0, 2.4]
 SDQ 6 - Difficulties w/emot/conc/beh/ getting along 16.2 4.8 4.4 [2.8, 6.9] 20.2 6.5 3.0 [1.8, 5.0] 54.6 19.4 3.8 [2.6, 5.4]
  1. Note: Interaction effects were significant for ADHD status and SDQ item 4 for missed school days (P=0.0490), ADHD status and SDQ item 1 for ER visits (P=0.0060), and ADHD status and SDQ item 2 for ER visits (P=0.0420).
  2. * SDQ 1: He/she is generally well behaved, usually does what adults request; SDQ 2: He/she has many worries, or often seems worried; SDQ 3: He/she is often unhappy, depressed, or tearful; SDQ 4: He/she gets along better with adults that with other children/youth; SDQ 5: He/she has good attention span, sees chores or homework through to the end; SDQ 6: Overall, do you think that [name] has difficulties in any of the following areas: emotions, concentration, behavior, or being able to get along with other people?