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Table 4 Associations of bullying-related behaviours (at least once weekly or more) with socioeconomic variables and psychiatric morbidity.

From: Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

  (base = Not involved in bullying-related behaviours)* OR (95% CI)
  Victims Perpetrators
Female Gender 0.89 (0.38-2.07) 0.08 (0.04-0.19)
Grade   
10th 1.00 1.00
11th 0.55 (0.26-1.18) 1.25 (0.61-2.56)
12th 0.34 (0.15-0.77) 0.25 (0.10-0.61)
Father's Educational Level   
Primary 1.00 1.00
Secondary Basic 1.87 (0.68-5.10) 1.63 (0.51-5.19)
Secondary Complete 0.85 (0.30-2.38) 1.09 (0.34-3.47)
Technological degree 0.21 (0.04-0.92) 0.67 (0.19-2.31)
University degree 1.05 (0.32-3.41) 0.60 (0.19-1.88)
Mother's Educational Level   
Primary 1.00 1.00
Secondary Basic 0.59 (0.19-1.80) 0.65 (0.18-2.30)
Secondary Complete 0.75 (0.30-1.84) 0.24 (0.07-0.77)
Technological degree 0.59 (0.15-2.35) 0.53 (0.13-2.20)
University degree 0.74 (0.17-3.14) 0.50 (0.11-2.25)
Financial Difficulties   
No 1.00 1.00
Very few 0.91 (0.41-2.02) 2.08 (0.94-4.59)
Some/A lot 1.50 (0.58-3.86) 2.93 (0.97-8.81)
School Performance   
Excellent 1.79 (0.49-6.52) 0.86 (0.28-2.65)
Very good 0.66 (0.25-1.74) 0.21 (0.08-0.55)
Good 0.83 (0.34-2.00) 0.62 (0.30-1.30)
Fair 1.00 1.00
Father's Employment Type   
Public sector employee 1.00 1.00
Private sector employee 1.73 (0.64-4.70) 1.30 (0.44-3.83)
Self-employed 1.16 (0.47-2.85) 4.62 (1.91-11.19)
Retired 0.41 (0.05-3.40) 0.65 (0.13-3.26)
Unemployed/Other 2.06 (0.56-7.62) 1.62 (0.32-8.08)
Mother's Employment Type   
Employee (public or private) 1.00 1.00
Self-employed 0.50 (0.12-2.07) 0.69 (0.22-2.17)
Unemployed 0.21 (0.02-1.95) 1.53 (0.33-7.15)
Looks after house 1.15 (0.47-2.81) 0.63 (0.26-1.50)
Retired//Other 0.22 (0.02-2.45) 0.20 (0.04-1.11)
BMI   
< 19 1.00 1.00
19-22 0.77 (0.31-1.90) 4.94 (1.75-13.94)
22-25 1.02 (0.38-2.77) 3.13 (1.06-9.28)
25-30 0.62 (0.19-2.01) 5.49 (1.48-20.38)
> = 30 8.86 (1.89-41.77) 0.50 (0.05-5.68)
Psychiatric Symptoms   
No symptoms 1.00 1.00
Subthreshold symptoms 1.52 (0.46-5.07) 3.00 (1.11-8.06)
Mild symptoms 1.24 (0.34-4.55) 3.39 (1.21-9.50)
Severe symptoms 4.67 (1.51-14.47) 4.54 (1.52-13.56)
  1. Adjusted odds ratios of bullying-related behaviours in adolescents 16-18 years old attending senior high schools in Greece (N = 2,427)
  2. * Please note that due to the small number of pupils with bullying-related behaviours in the fourth group of victims-perpetrators, odds ratios could not be calculated, therefore we only present odds ratios for victims vs. not involved and perpetrators vs. not involved
  3. OR: Odds ratio
  4. CI: Confidence Interval