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Table 2 Mean score (M) and standard deviation (SD) differences with associated significance level p and effect size f in the different diagnostic groups: personality disorder (PD), internalizing disorder (internal), and externalizing disorder (external)

From: Identity development in adolescents with mental problems

  Differences between diagnostic groups
  PD Internal External    
N= 24 N= 24 N=10
  M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) F p*1 f*2
AIDA total score: Identity diffusion 135.96 (27.41) 96.82 (39.22) 60.50 (30.18) 13.485 .000*** 0.44
1. Discontinuity 58.29 (13.02) 42.23 (18.80) 28.70 (12.66) 9.588 .000*** 0.36
1.1 attributes 23.92 (16.05) 19.09 (11.48) 14.40 (6.10) 1.484 .230 0.08
1.2 relationships 20.17 (6.45) 13.00 (7.92) 9.20 (7.38) 7.030 .000*** 0.29
1.3 emotional self-refl. 16.29 (5.54) 13.18 (6.65) 5.10 (3.64) 9.751 .000*** 0.36
2. Incoherence 74.96 (19.21) 51.55 (25.78) 31.80 (22.07) 9.615 .000*** 0.36
2.1 consistent self 32.00 (6.24) 20.82 (9.84) 13.50 (9.93) 13.106 .000*** 0.43
2.2 autonomy 26.17 (8.60) 19.77 (8.49) 10.20 (8.43) 8.375 .000*** 0.33
2.3 cognitive self-refl. 19.50 (5.88) 14.00 (5.97) 8.10 (6.26) 7.279 .000*** 0.35
  1. *1: Significance p ***=0.1% level, *2: effect size f>0.10 small, f>0.25 medium, f>0.40 big.