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Table 2 Distribution of comorbid diagnoses among ADHD (4) and ADHD (-) cases according to waves

From: Prevalence and diagnostic stability of ADHD and ODD in Turkish children: a 4-year longitudinal study

  1stwave 2ndwave 3rdwave 4thwave
ADHD (+) ADHD (−) ADHD (+) ADHD (−) ADHD (+) ADHD (−) ADHD (+) ADHD (−)
  N = 89 N = 82 N = 75 N = 91 N = 72 N = 96 N = 61 N = 101
  n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-%
ODD 55–61.8% * 6–7.3% * 34–45.9% **** 5–5.4% **** 29–40.3% * 7–7.3% * 24–39.3% 8–7,9% *
CD 16–18.0% * 1–1.2% * 13–17.6% **** 3–3.3% **** 9–12.5% * -- * 15–24,6% 1–1% *
Anxiety Disorders 29–32.6% 18–22% 9–12.2% 6–6.5% 4–5.6% 6–6.3% 3–4.9% 9–8.9%
Mood Disorders 11–12.4% 5–6.1% 2–2.7% 1–1.1% 7-9.7% *** 2.2.1% *** 7–11.5% 1–1% *
Tic Disorders 6–6.7% 4–4.9% 2–2.7% -- 1–1.4% -- 5–8.2% --
Enuresis 17–19.1% 11–13.4% 6–8.1% 5–5.4% 3-4.2% 3–3.1% 2–3.3% 1-1%
Encopresis 8–9.0% ** 1–1.2% ** 1–1.4% 1–1.1% -- 1–1% -- --
  1. * The comorbidity rates presented are based in the independent sub-samples assessed for ADHD. So, ODD comorbid rates does not match the number of ODD cases assessed in the ODD sub-sample.
  2. ODD Opposition defiant disorder, CD Conduct Disorder, ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  3. N = Number of patients with or without ADHD diagnosis, n = number of patients with comorbid diagnosis, % = Percentage of patients with comorbid diagnosis.
  4. Bold values mark statistically significant difference.
  5. *p < 0.001, **p = 0.023, ***p = 0.034.