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Table 3 Changes in mental health and behavior problems and social goals from initial to last measurement

From: Assessing change in the behavior of children and adolescents in youth welfare institutions using goal attainment scaling

  M(t1) M(tn) SD(t1) SD(tn) t df p Effect size Improvement (%) r(change, time)
Behavior problems           
CBCL internalizing 60.75 58.62 9.94 10.49 3.98* 335 <.0001 0.21 19.1 -.09
CBCL externalizing 60.88 59.70 11.72 12.09 2.11 335 .0354 0.10 16.1 -.03
CBCL total problems 62.77 60.79 8.94 10.43 3.98* 335 <.0001 0.20 21.1 -.09
YSR internalizing 59.79 56.77 11.03 10.65 5.65* 316 <.0001 0.28 21.5 -.13
YSR externalizing 60.35 58.25 11.03 10.39 3.94* 316 <.0001 0.20 17.0 -.03
YSR total problems 63.01 59.79 10.70 9.94 6.44* 316 <.0001 0.31 20.8 -.10
Social goals           
Independence 4.32 4.89 1.32 1.27 8.69* 414 <.0001 0.44 53.7 .18*
Future perspective 4.28 4.65 1.55 1.58 4.49* 414 <.0001 0.24 45.1 .14
Conflict management 4.06 4.60 1.26 1.24 8.08* 414 <.0001 0.43 52.5 .05
Ability to criticize / take criticism 4.17 4.58 1.34 1.26 5.77* 414 <.0001 0.32 43.9 .07
Reliability / rule compliance 4.96 5.15 1.37 1.30 2.75 414 .0062 0.14 39.8 .06
Behavior at school / vocational training 4.61 4.86 1.55 1.42 2.95 414 .0034 0.17 41.4 .02
Integration into (peer)groups / friendship 4.80 5.29 1.45 1.35 6.92* 414 <.0001 0.35 47.5 .20*
Ability to communicate 4.60 4.98 1.15 1.11 6.25* 414 <.0001 0.34 46.5 .14
Total score 4.47 4.88 1.01 1.01 8.37* 414 <.0001 0.41 65.3 .16
  1. CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist/4-18; YSR = Youth Self-Report; CBCL: N = 336, YSR: N = 317, social goals: N = 415; effect size = Cohen’s d: 0.2-0.5 small effect; improvement = percentage of clients whose assessment changed from T ≥ 60 to T < 60 in CBCL/YSR or who showed increase in this goal behavior; r = Pearson’s correlation between the extent of change and length of time interval between measurements: 0.1-0.3 small effect; p-level (adjusted) for 15 t-Tests: *p = .01 → p = .00067.