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Table 7 Most frequently used goal categories and changes in individual goals from the initial to last measurement

From: Assessing change in the behavior of children and adolescents in youth welfare institutions using goal attainment scaling

N = 433 Number of goals M(t1) M(tn) SD (t1) SD (tn) t df p Effect size Improvement (%)
Progress at school 193 3.86 4.69 1.36 1.63 7.91* 192 <.0001 0.55 54.4
Progress and behavior at vocational training 181 3.63 4.76 1.59 1.71 8.55* 180 <.0001 0.68 60.8
Behavior at school 156 3.35 4.56 1.27 1.63 9.74* 155 <.0001 0.83 63.5
Leisure activities 121 3.28 4.12 1.55 2.02 4.78* 120 <.0001 0.47 52.1
Independence 120 3.63 4.58 1.28 1.52 6.83* 119 <.0001 0.68 56.7
Health behavior 120 3.36 4.53 1.44 1.59 7.15* 119 <.0001 0.77 59.2
Social competence 69 3.52 4.83 1.21 1.46 7.14* 68 <.0001 0.98 75.4
Relationship to family members 65 3.15 4.45 1.27 1.49 7.01* 64 <.0001 0.94 64.6
Management of conflicts / ability to criticize 57 3.21 4.35 1.31 1.43 8.13* 56 <.0001 0.83 71.9
Reliability / responsibility 49 3.92 5.20 1.48 1.59 6.00* 48 <.0001 0.83 57.1
Other 363 3.22 4.56 1.37 1.64 16.74* 362 <.0001 0.89 66.7
All individual goals 1494 3.45 4.59 1.41 1.65 27.49* 1493 <.0001 0.75 61.6
  1. Effect size = Cohen’s d: 0.5-0.8 medium effect, > 0.8 large effect; improvement = percentage of clients who showed increase in this goal behavior; p-level (adjusted) for 12 t-Tests: *p = .01 → p = .00083.