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Table 3 Descriptive statistics on regulation problems (T1 and T2), HBS overall stress (T1), maternal stress levels and dysfunctionality of the mother-child interaction (T1) and on children`s developmental levels (T1, T3)

From: Influence of early regulatory problems in infants on their development at 12 months: a longitudinal study in a high-risk sample

  M (SD) Range N K-S-Test
SFS C/S T1 1.56 (0.30) 1.00 - 2.50 153 n.s.
SFS F T1 1.23 (0.29) 1.00 – 2.69 153 p < 0.000
SFS C/S T2 1.54 (0.32) 1.04 - 2.75 140 p < 0.002
SFS F T2 1.28 (0.32) 1.00 – 2.46 140 p < 0.000
HBS O T1 49.53 (15.00) 10 - 90 150 p < 0.000
PSI PD T1 2.28 (0.76) 1.00 – 4.58 127 n.s.
PSI DI T1 1.40 (0.43) 1.00 – 3.33 126 p < 0.000
ASQ C T1 51.40 20 - 60 153 p < 0.000
ASQ GM T1 55.98 20 - 60 153 p < 0.000
ASQ FM T1 47.58 15 - 60 153 p < 0.000
ASQ PS T1 53.31 15 - 60 151 p < 0.000
ASQ SD T1 50.49 15 - 60 152 p < 0.000
ASQ C T3 44.84 (10.63) 20 - 60 123 p < 0.004
ASQ GM T3 46.84 (15.78) 5 - 60 122 p < 0.000
ASQ FM T3 49.71 (10.49) 10 - 60 122 p < 0.000
ASQ PS T3 47.17 (10.53) 15 - 60 120 p < 0.003
ASQ SD T3 43.90 (13.44) 10 - 60 123 p < 0.006
  1. K-S-Test: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normal distribution; SFS: Questionnaires on Crying, Feeding and Sleep; C/S: “Crying / Sleep”; F: “Feeding”; HBS: Heidelberger Belastungsskala; O: Overall stress; PSI: Parental Stress Index; PD : “Parental distress“; DI: “Dysfunctional parent–child interaction”; ASQ: Ages and Stages Questionnaire¸ C : “Communication”; GM: “Gross motor skills”; FM: “Fine motor skills”; PS: “Problem-solving skills”; SD: “Social development”; n.s.: not significant.