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Table 3 Clinical concerns of maltreatment-related investigations involving infants in Canada in 2008 (n = 17,339)

From: Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect

  Frequency %
Primary Caregiver Age   
  18 Years and Under 2,173 12.6%
  19 to 21 Years 3,408 19.8%
  22 to 30 Years 7,679 44.6%
  31 to 40 Years 3,488 20.2%
  41 Years and Older 482 2.8%
Primary Caregiver Risk Factors   
  Alcohol Abuse 3,511 20.3%
  Drug/Solvent Abuse 4,356 25.1%
  Cognitive Impairment 2,095 12.1%
  Mental Health Issues 4,703 27.1%
  Physical Health Issues 1,299 7.5%
  Few Social Supports 6,142 35.4%
  Victim of Domestic Violence 6,778 39.1%
  Perpetrator of Domestic Violence 1,437 8.3%
  History of Foster Care/Group Home 2,781 16.0%
  At Least One Functioning Concern 13,283 76.6%
Child Functioning Concerns   
  Attachment Issues 443 2.6%
  Intellectual/Developmental Disability 401 2.3%
  Failure to Meet Developmental Milestones 626 3.6%
  FAS/FAE 480 2.8%
  Positive Toxicology at Birth 1,253 7.2%
  Physical Disability 369 2.1%
No Second Caregiver in the Home 5,535 31.9%
Primary Income   
  Full-time 1,378 7.9%
  Part-time/Seasonal 821 4.7%
  Other Benefits/Unemployment 10,553 60.9%
  No Income 4,587 26.5%
At Least One Household Hazard 1,683 9.7%
Household Regularly Runs Out of Money 2,515 14.5%
Number of Moves   
  No Moves 5,440 31.4%
  One Move 4,658 26.9%
  Two or More Moves 2,843 16.4%
Type of Maltreatment   
  Physical Abuse 1,190 6.8%%
  Sexual Abuse 99 0.6%%
  Neglect 4,913 28.1%
  Emotional Maltreatment 537 3.1%
  Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) 3,917 22.6%
  Risk 6,684 38.5%