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Table 3 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and effect size of the difference in parental response (online versus on paper-and-pencil) to the SDQ

From: Psychometric properties of online administered parental strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration

  Online M (SD) Paper-and-Pencil M (SD) Effect size of the difference (ηp2)
  N = 437 N = 946  
Emotional Symptoms 1.7 (1.8) 1.4 (1.7) .003
Hyperactivity-Inattention 2.3 (2.1) 2.3 (2.1) .000
Peer Problems 1.2 (1.5) 1.2 (1.5) .000
Conduct Problems 1.0 (1.2) 1.1 (1.3) .001
Prosocial Behavior 8.3 (1.7) 8.5 (1.6) .001
Total Difficulties 6.2 (4.7) 6.1 (4.8) .000