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Table 1 Child and family demographic background (n = 474)

From: Resource factors for mental health resilience in early childhood: An analysis with multiple methodologies

Time 1 variables M (SD) or %
Child age 4.59 (0.33)
Child Gender Female 51%
Family receives means-tested government pension/benefit 40.3%
Mother was adolescent (<21) when child born 7.2%
Father was adolescent (<21) when child born 2.0%
Child currently lives in a single parent family 12.9%
Child has 3 or more siblings living in home 8.9%
Number of stressful family life events in the last year 0.90 (1.17)
Parental psychological distress (GHQ) score 1.41 (2.49)
     Above GHQ clinical cut-off 39.1%
Number of years child lived separate from one (or both) natural parents a 0.50 (1.28)
Mother’s education level b 2.51 (1.07)
     Completed university qualifications 20.3%
     Technical, trade, or further education (TAFE) certificate 33.4%
     Completed high school Year 12 or equivalent 21.6%
     Completed some years of high school or less 24.7%
Father’s education level b 2.65 (1.03)
     Completed university qualifications 11.2%
     Technical, trade, or TAFE certificate or some university 42.7%
     Completed high school Year 12 or equivalent 15.9%
     Completed some years of high school or less 30.3%
Family paid employment level b 1.74 (0.99)
     Two parents employed full-time 6.3%
     One parent full-time and one part-time 38.0%
     One parent full-time or 2 parents part-time 39.9%
     One parent part-time 7.2%
     Both parents unemployed or an unemployed single parent 8.6%
  1. Note.a. i.e., Duration of parental separation b. Higher scores on these variables indicate less education and employment, respectively.