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Table 6 MANCOVA results: resource variable means (and SDs) for the four adaptation groups, between-subjects effects, and planned contrasts

From: Resource factors for mental health resilience in early childhood: An analysis with multiple methodologies

Resource variable 1. Resilient (high adv+ low SDQ) 2. Maladaptive (high adv+ high SDQ) 3. Competent (low adv+ low SDQ) 4. Highly-vulnerable (low adv+ high SDQ) Between-subjects effects Planned contrasts
      F Partial η 2  
Parent-reported adaptation groups (n = 237)
  (n = 39) (n = 79) (n = 72) (n = 47) df = 3, 233   
P Child–parent relationshipa 68.23 (5.80) 62.70 (6.61) 68.84 (4.67) 63.40 (6.37) 45.42*** .19 1 > 2; 1 = 3; 3 > 4
T Child-teacher relationshipa 68.36 (7.14) 66.53 (8.64) 70.03 (5.51) 66.38 (9.41) 7.48* .04 1 = 2; 1 = 3; 3 = 4
P Self-concept 0.39 (0.76) −0.46 (0.94) 0.44 (0.71) −0.39 (0.83) 21.31*** .22 1 > 2; 1 = 3; 3 > 4
P Self-control 22.23 (4.08) 19.09 (4.15) 22.19 (3.52) 19.13 (4.37) 11.84*** .13 1 > 2; 1 = 3; 3 > 4
Teacher-reported adaptation groups (n = 234)
  (n = 50) (n = 71) (n = 65) (n = 48) df = 3, 230   
P Child–parent relationship 65.16 (7.05) 64.44 (7.04) 67.61 (5.55) 64.78 (6.95) 3.04* .04 1 = 2; 1 = 3; 3 = 4
T Child-teacher relationshipa 68.10 (5.79) 65.70 (9.80) 69.65 (5.30) 66.13 (10.21) 4.45 .04 n/a
T Self-concepta −0.01 (0.87) −0.60 (1.09) 0.27 (0.66) −0.07 (1.07) 23.51*** .12 1 > 2; 1 = 3; 3 = 4
T Self-controla 24.77 (4.62) 20.90 (5.56) 24.85 (4.71) 22.63 (6.85) 20.43*** .09 1 > 2; 1 = 3; 3 = 4
  1. Note. These results adjust for the covariate gender (not shown for ease of presentation). For the three planned contrasts, all significant group differences found were at p < .05. Numbers within the planned contrasts column refer to adaptation group shown in the mean scores column headings. P = parent-reported variable; T = teacher-reported variable; adv = adversity; SDQ = total SDQ mental health difficulties score; n/a = planned contrasts not conducted as no significant univariate group differences.
  2. a Non-parametric tests used (Kruskal-Wallis Test for between-subjects, Mann–Whitney Test for paired comparisons) due to unequal variances across groups. In these cases, a χ2 value is reported instead of an F value.