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Table 4 Results of exploratory factor analysis (Varimax Rotation) of parent- and teacher-rated SDQs for Japanese children

From: Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children

SDQ items Parent ratings (n = 24,519) Teacher ratings (n = 7,977)
Factor I Factor II Factor III Factor IV Factor V Communality Factor I Factor II Factor III Factor IV Factor V Communality
  Pro Hyper Emotion Conduct Peer   Pro Hyper Emotion Conduct Peer  
Initial eigenvalue 4.88 2.60 1.70 1.21 1.12 11.52 7.07 2.60 1.82 1.24 1.08 13.80
% of variance 9.06 16.82 23.68 28.39 33.03   16.68 28.53 38.89 47.25 55.22  
Prosocial behavior             
  1 considerate -.63      .45 -.75      .65
  4 shares -.49      .26 -.64      .44
  9 caring -.66      .45 -.81      .69
  17 kind to kids -.53      .29 -.74      .57
  20 helps out -.58      .37 -.78      .63
Hyperactivity/inattention             
  2 restless   .56     .46   .80     .74
  10 fidgety   .27 .34    .27   .61     .56
  15 distractive   .69     .63   .82     .77
  21 reflective (*)   .56     .44   .57     .63
  25 persistent (*)   .64     .50   .59     .59
Emotional symptoms             
  3 somatic complaints    .31    .14    .54    .37
  8 worries    .55    .37    .75    .59
  13 unhappy    .44    .30    .65    .48
  16 clingy    .62    .43    .68    .56
  24 fears    .51    .29    .68    .51
Conduct problems             
  5 temper     .45   .33     .57   .49
  7 obedient (*) .44    .28   .30 .54    .38   .44
  12 fights     .46   .25     .67   .60
  18 lies, cheats     .41   .31     .62   .54
  22 steals     .23   .07     .58   .34
Peer problems             
  6 solitary      .41 .21      .70 .55
  11 good friend (*)      .38 .18      .61 .48
  14 popular (*)      .42 .34 .55     .42 .59
  19 picked on, bullied      .44 .33      .52 .44
  23 best with adults      .50 .31      .68 .54
  1. Note. SDQ, strengths and difficulties questionnaire. *indicates a reverse item and inverted scores were analyzed.