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Table 2 Prevalence of childhood (<10 Years of Age), adolescence (≥10 Years of Age), and lifetime catatonic features among adolescent Schizophrenia patients with (n = 8) and without (n =10) a History of ChildhoodPervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

From: Catatonic features in adolescents with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder

  Childhood Adolescence Lifetime
Feature PDD+ PDD- p Phi PDD+ PDD- p Phi PDD+ PDD- p Phi
Movement             
Odd gait 62.5% 20.0% NS   37.5% 20.0% NS   62.5% 30.0% NS  
Poor coordination 37.5% 10.0% NS   37.5% 50.0% NS   37.5% 50.0% NS  
Odd hand postures 0.0% 0.0% NS   12.5% 10.0% NS   12.5% 10.0% NS  
Runs in circles 0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS  
Rocks while sitting 25.0% 0.0% NS   37.5% 40.0% NS   50.0% 40.0% NS  
Complex body movements 0.0% 0.0% NS   25.0% 20.0% NS   25.0% 20.0% NS  
Walks on tiptoe 12.5% 10.0% NS   12.5% 0.0% NS   12.5% 10.0% NS  
Grimaces 12.5% 10.0% NS   50.0% 0.0% 0.02 0.60 50.0% 10.0% NS  
Lacks facial expression 50.0% 0.0% 0.02 0.60 87.5% 100.0% NS   87.5% 100.0% NS  
Speech and vocalization             
Immediate echolalia 25.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS   25.0% 0.0% NS  
Delayed echolalia 62.5% 0.0% 0.007 0.69 37.5% 20.0% NS   75.0% 20.0% NS  
Odd intonation 50.0% 0.0% 0.02 0.60 75.0% 80.0% NS   75.0% 80.0% NS  
Shrieks for no reason 12.5% 0.0% NS   37.5% 0.0% NS   37.5% 0.0% NS  
Laughs for no reason 12.5% 0.0% NS   50.0% 40.0% NS   50.0% 40.0% NS  
Behavior             
Eye contact             
Poor eye contact 50.0% 10.0% NS   87.5% 70.0% NS   87.5% 70.0% NS  
Sideways glances 12.5% 10.0% NS   25.0% 30.0% NS   25.0% 30.0% NS  
Blank look in eyes 25.0% 0.0% NS   37.5% 60.0% NS   50.0% 60.0% NS  
Stares 25.0% 10.0% NS   37.5% 40.0% NS   37.5% 40.0% NS  
Visual fascinations             
Spins objects 0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS  
Twists hands near eyes 0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS  
Closely inspects objects from different angles 0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS   0.0% 0.0% NS  
Unsocial behavior             
Shouts for no reason 37.5% 20.0% NS   50.0% 40.0% NS   50.0% 40.0% NS  
Aggressive for no reason 12.5% 10.0% NS   37.5% 50.0% NS   37.5% 50.0% NS  
Lack of cooperation 62.5% 30.0% NS   62.5% 90.0% NS   75.0% 90.0% NS  
Destructive 62.5% 10.0% 0.04 0.55 37.5% 40.0% NS   75.0% 40.0% NS  
Strips in public 50.0% 10.0% 0.02 0.60 50.0% 20.0% NS   50.0% 25.0% NS  
Inappropriate personal habits 12.5% 0.0% NS   12.5% 0.0% NS   12.5% 0.0% NS  
Hyperactive 12.5% 0.0% NS   0.0% 30.0% NS   12.5% 30.0% NS  
  1. The Fishers’ Exact Test Was Used to Compare the Groups. Effect Sizes (Phi) Are Reported.