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Table 1 Overview of various types of prevention programs addressed to various groups of adults

From: Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

  Parents/Guardians People working with children (e.g., teachers, coaches) General public
Goals To educate parents and guardians on....., To educate people working with children on....,  
1. How to inform their children about sexual abuse 1. How to inform children about the prevention of sexual abuse 1. To inform the public about sexual abuse (e.g., prevalence, opportunities for intervention, etc.)
2. How to protect their children from sexual abuse 2. How to recognize and report sexual abuse 2. To change societal behavior
3. How to recognize signs of (potential) sexual abuse und how to stop it
4. How to strengthen a healthy family dynamic
Challenges for the conceptualization and implementation of effective measures Important factors for the success of a program addressed to parents/guardians are: Important factors for the success of a program addressed to those working with children are:  
• Interest in the topic • Interest in the topic • Media-based campaigns are complex in content and costly to finance
• Qualification of the prevention educator • Qualification of the prevention educator
• Program time-frame (length of training measures and/or independent work) • Program time-frame (length of training measures and/or independent work) • Their effectiveness can indirectly depend on the availability of monetary donations
• Source of referral (Parents put more trust into recommendations by physicians or teachers than those by the media) • Source of referral (similar to those of parents/guardians) • Social-marketing campaigns need to be based on solid research with a view towards the target group
Studies to evaluate prevention programs • Parents who have participated in a program led by qualified educators and have discussed the topic, are in a stronger position to protect a child from sexual abuse [36] • Programs addressed to teachers have a positive influence on the teachers’ knowledge about the topic [37] • Up to now, only very few public campaigns on this topic have been assessed [34]
• Campaigns that focus on specific target groups and topics receive more attention and are therefore more effective [34]
• Programs which include both parents have consistently proven to be effective [37]. “Home visitations “in high-risk families result in a decrease in the risk of abuse [38] • People who received training feel in a much stronger position to make a decision not solely based on physical signs; in addition, frequency, duration, intensity, and the professional standards of training measures play an important role [39]
  1. Legend: Overview of goals, of challenges for the conception and implementation of effective measures as well as of studies on the evaluation of prevention programs for adults.