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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions of past repeated NSSI on all study variables

From: Predictors of self-injury cessation and subsequent psychological growth: results of a probability sample survey of students in eight universities and colleges

  Current repeateda NSSI Pastb repeated NSSI Multivariate modelc
  M (SD) % (n) M (SD) % (n) AOR [95 % CI]
Sexd      
  Male   65.4 (142)   34.6 (75) 1.00
  Female   55.9 (340)   44.1 (268) 1.55** [1.11, 2.15]
Age 21.1 (3.4)   21.8 (3.9)   1.05** [1.01–1.1]
NSSI characteristics      
 NSSI lifetime frequency      
  6–10 times   27.6 (135)   38.7 (134) 1.00
  11–20 times   23.3 (114)   27.2 (94) .79 [.54, 1.15]
  21–50 times   22.7 (111)   21.7 (75) .60* [.41,.90]
   > 50 times   26.5 (130)   12.4 (43) .28*** [.18, .44]
 Age of NSSI onset 14.3 (3.5)   14.5 (3.04)   1.01 [.96,1.06]
 Number of NSSI functions 6.2 (3.8)   5.08 (3.5)   .92*** [.88, .96]
 Number of NSSI forms 3.42 (2.67)   2.96 (2.02)   .93* [ .88, .99]
 Perceived dependence on NSSI 2.5 (.99)   2.5 (0.91)   .93 [.60, 1.09]
 I think of myself as a self-injurer   30.3 (139)   19.1 (62) .54*** [.38, .76]
NSSI is a problem in my life 2.38 (1.38)   3.10 (1.48)   1.4*** [1.27, 1.57]
Disclosure & formal help-seeking      
 Have had a conversation about NSSI   62.1 (295)   57.3 (189) 0.86 1.01, 1.09]
 Number of NSSI conversationse 2.3 (1.38)   2.17 (1.17)   0.91 [.78, 1.05]
 Number of helpful NSSI conversationse 1.63 (0.86)   1.98 (1.10)   1.02 [.95, 1.1]
 Willingness to seek professional help 13.09 (3.62)   13.78 (3.99)   1.12 [.98, 1.28]
 Ever been in therapy   64.2 (307)   68.9 (230) 1.15 [.85, 1.56]
 Helpfulness of therapy in stopping NSSIf 1.64 (0.86)   1.97 (1.11)   1.45*** [1.19, 1.76]
Psychosocial factors      
 Number of people can turn to when distressed 3.20 (2.37)   3.43 (2.29)   1.03 [.97, 1.10]
 Quality of social support 10.42 (2.02)   10.86 (1.77)   1.25*** [1.10, 1.41]
 Family emotional climate 12.24 (4.71)   12.17 (4.74)   0.99 [.97, 1.02]
 Found meaning in life 20.84 (5.57)   21.95 (6.38)   1.21** [1.06, 1.37]
 Emotion regulation strategies 26.31 (7.43)   29.48 (6.88)   1.39*** [1.23, 1.58]
 Life satisfaction 20.02 (7.39)   21.91 (7.37)   1.22** [1.07, 1.40]
Mental health and life trauma      
 Count of traumatic life events 2.30 (1.73)   2.24 (1.67)   0.96 [.88, 1.05]
 Perceived suffered psychiatric condition   62.0 (304)   69.1 (239) 1.29 [.95, 1.73]
 Disordered eating behaviors   49.8 (244)   49.7 (172) .96 [.72, 1.27]
 K-6 score 15.4 (3.99)   13.6 (3.67)   .88*** [.85, .92]
 Suicidal thoughts or behaviors      
  No suicidal thoughts or behaviors   45.4 (221)   40.8 (141)  
  Suicidal thoughts only   36.4 (177)   41.7 (144) 1.25 [.92, 1.7]
  Suicide behaviors   18.1 (88)   17.3 (60) 1.1 [.74, 1.65]
  1. NSSI non-suicidal self-injury, CI confidence interval, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001
  3. arepeated indicates 6 or more lifetime NSSI episodes
  4. bPast specifies individuals who have not practiced NSSI for at least one year and indicate that they unlikely to injure again
  5. cDerived from one logistic regression model per row that controls for sex and age
  6. dFrequencies do not sum to 100 % due to missing data
  7. eof participants who had ever had a conversation about NSSI
  8. fof participants who had ever been to therapy