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Table 3 Parents’ mean scores (and standard deviations) on the DASS-21 and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for group comparisons

From: Parenting behavior in families of female adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury in comparison to a clinical and a nonclinical control group

Group Overall score Depression Anxiety Stress
M (SD) Cohen’s d M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Mothers
NSSI (n = 36) 26.26 (19.60)   7.38 (8.80) 7.16 (10.8) 13.06 (7.18)
CC (n = 22) 17.80 (16.06)   5.00 (5.78) 2.62 (5.22) 11.09 (7.22)
NC (n = 34) 11.71 (11.73)   2.59 (4.02) 2.08 (2.78) 7.52 (5.85)
NSSI vs. CC   0.47    
NSSI vs. NC   0.91    
CC vs. NC   0.46    
Fathers
NSSI (n = 9) 28.44 (16.66)   6.66 (5.92) 5.33 (6.40) 16.44 (5.90)
CC (n = 5) 14.00 (15.17)   3.20 (3.63) 1.60 (2.19) 9.20 (9.86)
NC (n = 10) 11.11 (14.04)   2.60 (5.74) 1.40 (2.12) 6.80 (6.61)
NSSI vs. CC   0.96    
NSSI vs. NC   1.20    
CC vs. NC   0.22    
  1. DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; NSSI Adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury; CC clinical controls (adolescents with other mental disorders); NC nonclinical controls (adolescents without mental disorders)