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Table 4 Variables associated to the source of referral

From: Reasons and pathways of first-time consultations at child and adolescent mental health services: an observational study in Italy

Dependent variable Independent variables p O.R. 95 % CI
Referred by parents themselves Borderline externalizing CBCL vs normal score 0.016* 2.7 1.2–6.3
Clinical externalizing CBCL vs normal score 0.096 2.1 0.8–4.8
Non-traditional family vs traditional 0.06 7.1 0.95–45.4
Consultation for low mood vs any other reason 0.623 0.8 0.38–1.7
Non-Italian nationality vs Italian 0.169 0.2 0.01–2.1
Borderline internalizing CBCL vs normal 0.693 0.8 0.4–1.84
Clinical internalizing CBCL vs normal 0.786 0.86 0.30–2.4
Referred by school teachers Borderline externalizing CBCL vs normal 0.222 1.6 0.75–3.4
Clinical externalizing CBCL vs normal 0.288 0.96 0.23–1.5
Non-traditional family vs traditional 0.409 0.41 0.05–3.3
Consultation for low mood vs any other reason 0.003* 0.24 0.09–0.61
Non-Italian nationality vs Italian 0.037* 3.7 1.0–12.6
Borderline internalizing CBCL vs normal 0.629 0.82 0.37–1.80
Clinical internalizing CBCL vs normal 0.002* 0.34 0.17–0.66
  1. Multinomial logistic regression, with backward stepwise elimination, was used to assess the association between the dependent variable “source of referral” (referred by parents and referred by school teachers; reference category: referral by professionals), and the following predictive factors: CBCL internalizing, externalizing and total scores, reasons of contact, family structure, and nationality
  2. * p ≤ 0.05