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Table 1 Empirical studies of the nonsuicidal self-injury disorder diagnosis

From: The DSM-5 diagnosis of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder: a review of the empirical literature

References Type of sample Sample size (female %) Age group Range Mean age (SD) Country NSSI criteria used Prevalence (%) Female (%) of those with NSSID Instruments assessing NSSI disorder criteria
Albores-Gallo et al. [47] School 533 (54) Children and adolescents 11–17 years 13.37 (0.95) Mexico Shaffer and Jacobsona (2009) 5.6 66.7 Self-Injury Questionnaire (self-report)
Andover [55] Community 548 (46.5) Adults 18–73 years 35.70 (12.23) US APAb (2013) 2.6 (11.2 of those with an NSSI history) 50.0 Questions developed for DSM-5 criteria (self-report)
Barrocas et al. [48] School 665 (55.0) Children and adolescents 7–16 years 11.6 (2.4) US Shaffer and Jacobsonc (2009) 1.5   SITBI interview FASM CDI (self-report)
Bracken-Minor and McDevitt-Murphy [54] College 480 (79.8) Young adults 18–54 years 21.30 (5.69) US Shaffer and Jacobsond (2009) 12.9C   ISAS (self-report)
Fischer et al. [49] Clinical inpatient 111 (65.8) Adolescents 12–19 years 15.38 (1.72) Germany APA (2013) 36.9   SITBI interview
Glenn and Klonsky [23] Clinical inpatient and partial hospitalization 198 (74) Adolescents 12–18 years 15.13 (1.38) US Shaffer and Jacobsone (2009) 50 (78 of self-injuring sample) 86.7 ISAS (self-report)
Gratz et al. [53] Community 107 with NSSI (80) Young adults 18–35 years 23.86 (4.87) Canada and US APA (2013) 37 of repetitive NSSI sample 85.0 CANDI Structured diagnostic interview
In-Albon et al. [50] Clinical inpatient 73 (100) Adolescents 13–18 years Germany and Switzerland APA (2012) 56.2 Only female sample Clinical interview DSM-5 criteria reformulated questions
Manca et al. [14] School 953 Adolescents Italy Shaffer and Jacobsonf (2009) 3.1 (49.2 of repetitive NSSI sample)   DSHI R-NSSI-Q SBQ-R (self-report)
Odelius and Ramklint [51] Clinical outpatient 39 (87.2) Adolescents and young adults 13–25 years 21 (1.9) Sweden Shaffer and Jacobson (2009) 46.2 of NSSI sample 83.3 Clinical interview DSM-5 criteria reformulated questions
Selby et al. [45]A Clinical outpatient 571 (53) Adults US Shaffer and Jacobsong (2009) 11.4 50.8 Chart data
Washburn et al. [52] Clinical inpatient, partial hospitalization and intensive outpatient 511 (90.0) Adolescents and young adults 12–52 years 17.3 (6.2) US APA (2013) 74.0 of NSSI sample   ABASI (self-report)
Zetterqvist et al. [46]B School 3,060 Adolescents 15–17 years 16.4 (0.89) Sweden APAh (2012) 6.7 (18.8 of NSSI sample) 83.4 SITBI-SF-SR FASM (self-report)
  1. An additional study by Lengel and Mullins-Sweatt [42] was identified and is referred to in the text, but its focus is on clinicians’ assessment of criteria.
  2. ABASI Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury, DSHI Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, NSSI nonsuicidal self-injury, ISAS Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury, FASM Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation, SBQ-R Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire—Revised, SITBI-SF-SR Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview Short-Form Self-Report, CDI Children’s Depression Inventory, CANDI Clinician Administered Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Disorder Index, R-NSSI-Q Repetitive Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Questionnaire.
  3. aCriterion D not assessed.
  4. bCriteria D and F not assessed.
  5. cCriteria B1, B2, B3 and D not assessed.
  6. dCriteria B2, B3, C and D not assessed.
  7. eCriteria B2, B3, D not assessed.
  8. fCriterion D not assessed
  9. gCriteria B1, B2, B3, B4 and C not assessed.
  10. hCriterion D not assessed
  11. ASame study sample as in Ward et al. [43].
  12. BSame study sample as in Zetterqvist et al. [44].
  13. CThe title of the study may have led to a bias in participant selection with high rates of NSSI.