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Table 3 Risk ratios for self-injury by severity of pain symptoms in different locations

From: The association of self-injurious behaviour and suicide attempts with recurrent idiopathic pain in adolescents: evidence from a population-based study

  M1: Unadjusted M2: Adjusted M3: Fully-Adjusted
1–3 times per year RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
 General pain (sometimes) 1.661 (1.354–2.037)*** 1.581 (1.278–1.956)*** 1.121 (0.901–1.393)
 General pain (very often) 2.577 (1.879–3.533)*** 2.355 (1.720–3.224)*** 1.565 (1.132–2.165)**
 Headaches (sometimes) 1.252 (1.021–1.535)* 1.156 (0.941–1.420) 1.084 (0.874–1.344)
 Headaches (very often) 1.869 (1.354–2.581)*** 1.586 (1.142–2.203)** 1.286 (0.918–1.801)
 Abdominal pain (sometimes) 1.679 (1.356–2.080)*** 1.465 (1.179–1.820)*** 1.184 (0.939–1.494)
 Abdominal pain (very often) 2.675 (1.967–3.637)*** 2.239 (1.631–3.074)*** 1.413 (0.996–2.003)
>3 times per year RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
 General pain (sometimes) 1.967 (1.368–2.828)*** 1.963 (1.361–2.831)*** 1.107 (0.745–1.645)
 General pain (very often) 3.150 (1.775–5.592)*** 3.045 (1.719–5.395)*** 1.382 (0.747–2.559)
 Headaches (sometimes) 1.080 (0.789–1.480) 0.964 (0.700–1.326) 0.903 (0.643–1.268)
 Headaches (very often) 2.450 (1.453–4.133)*** 1.983 (1.196–3.287)** 1.366 (0.822–2.269)
 Abdominal pain (sometimes) 1.986 (1.406–2.805)*** 1.575 (1.103–2.247)* 1.078 (0.740–1.569)
 Abdominal pain (very often) 5.097 (3.345–7.767)*** 3.869 (2.516–5.948)*** 1.631 (0.968–2.749)
  1. Ratios are expressed with respect to references categories for SI (no SI) and pain symptoms (no pain in the respective location); models on pain variables include missings (no response); Model 1: unadjusted, only adjusted for 116 clusters (schools); Model 2: adjusted for sociodemographic variables: gender, age, school type, and living situation at home; Model 3: further adjustment for all sub-scales of the YSR except for somatic complaints.
  2. *** p < 0.001; ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05.