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Table 2 ANCOVA of ASR (Adult Self-Report) and MFQ (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire) scores for the different bullying involvement groups (Total N = 1266) adjusted for gender and parent SES-level and baseline mental health score

From: The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood

Outcomes Non-involved (1) M (SD) Being bullied (2) M (SD) Bully–victim (3) M (SD) Aggressive toward others (4) M (SD) P value Post-hoc comparisona
N 982 158 39 87   
ASR total problems (range 0–240) 30.27 (23.70) 39.70 (25.34) 46.41 (31.23) 39.68 (30.47) 0.057 N.S
ASR externalizing problems (range 0–74) 6.53 (6.37) 8.68 (6.23) 10.38 (7.83) 9.46 (7.84) 0.060 N.S
ASR internalizing problems (range 0–80) 10.79 (10.22) 14.94 (11.79) 16.84 (15.47) 13.75 (13.06) 0.055 N.S
ASR attention problems (range 0–30) 5.39 (4.24) 6.30 (4.19) 8.22 (5.78) 6.63 (5.15) 0.239 N.S
ASR critical items (range 0–38) 2.89 (3.10) 3.91 (3.10) 5.14 (4.19) 4.21 (4.35) 0.008 N.S
MFQ depressive symptoms (0–68) 9.05 (11.13) 13.36 (13.61) 12.68 (13.16) 12.36 (13.86) <0.001 1 < 2
  1. Baseline mental health score for ASR(T4); YSR total problem score (T1), baseline mental health score for MFQ(T4); baseline MFQ score (T1)
  2. aHochberg’s step-up correction