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Table 5 Mean scores for PPAP and WC groups on SDQ, PSI, and KPSS scales across Time 1 and Time 2 (standard deviations in parentheses)

From: Positive parenting: a randomised controlled trial evaluation of the Parents Plus Adolescent Programme in schools

Scale PPAP group (n = 70) WC group (n = 39)
Time 1 Time 2 Time 1 Time 2
SDQ
 TD 11.97 (5.96) 5.70 (4.13) 10.82 (6.78) 10.92 (6.80)
 HYP 3.33 (2.28) 2.86 (1.84) 3.79 (2.76) 3.90 (2.69)
 CON 2.30 (1.61) 0.886 (1.09) 2.49 (2.01) 2.38 (2.16)
 EMO 3.93 (2.41) 0.986 (1.62) 2.5 (2.10) 2.56 (1.94)
 PEER 2.41 (2.26) 0.971 (1.44) 1.97 (2.07) 2.08 (1.91)
 PRO 6.90 (2.53) 8.33 (1.63) 7.21 (1.94) 7.38 (1.94)
PSI
 PSI total 77.97 (14.69) 65.87 (14.39) 84.10 (18.13) 83.95 (19.44)
 PD 28.17 (7.65) 21.59 (6.36) 29.46 (7.57) 28.97 (8.45)
 DC 30.71 (7.66) 23.21 (6.25) 28.95 (7.71) 29.41 (7.96)
 PSI-P-CDI 26.16 (6.34) 21.07 (5.01) 25.23 (6.85) 25.56 (6.84)
KPSS
 KPSS total 14.23 (16.89) 16.89 (2.36) 13.72 (2.88) 13.62 (3.08)
Parent-Defined Goals
 PDCG 3.97 (1.54) 6.53 (1.42) 4.31 (1.62) 4.15 (1.66)
 PDPG 3.63 (1.48) 6.93 (1.38) 3.90 (1.60) 3.87 (1.66)
  1. SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, TD Total Difficulties, EMOT Emotional Symptoms, HYPER Hyperactivity, CON Conduct Problems, PEER Peer Problems, PRO prosocial behavior, PSI Parenting Stress Index, PSI total total stress, PD parental distress, DC Difficult Child, P-CDI Parent–Child dysfunctional interaction, KPSS Kansas Parenting Satisfaction Scale, KPSS total KPSS total parenting satisfaction, PDCG Parent-Defined Child Goals, PDPG Parent-Defined Personal Goals