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Table 1 Included studies in phase 2

From: What do we know about the risks for young people moving into, through and out of inpatient mental health care? Findings from an evidence synthesis

Author (s) year, Country Participants Setting Length of stay (days) Age (years) Gender (% male) Focus Quality
Prospective cohort study
 Best et al. [14], USA Hospital: Ad (n = 70) High school: Ad (n = 76) Psychiatric units (n = NS) matched with one high school in same area Range 37–921; mean 198 Hospitalised: mean 14.1 ± 1.0; range 11.8–15.9 High school: mean 14.5 ± 0.4; range 13.8–15.8 Hospitalised: 56 High school: 46 Dislocation: Ed Strong
Before-and-after study (no control group)
 Singh et al. [16], USA Study 1, HCP: pre (n = 18); post (n = 18) Study 2, HCP (n = 5) Study 1: inpatient unit (n = 1) Study 2: inpatient unit (n = 1) Study 1: NA Study 2: NA Study 1: NA Study 2: NA Study 1: NA Study 2: NA Study 1: Dislocation: Fa Study 2: Dislocation: Fa Study 1: weak Study 2: weak
Quasi-experimental multiple time series (retrospective)
 Simmerman [15], USA Ad (n = 107) RTC (n = 1) NS Range 12–19 years NS Dislocation: Ed Weak
Qualitative studies
 Buston [27], UK (Scotland) Ad (n = 12) Previously inpatients NA Mean 17.3; range 14–20 34 Dislocation: Fa, Fr, Ed A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I High
 Claveirole [18], UK (Scotland) Ad (n = 18); P (n = 16); HCP (n = 23) Inpatients (n = NS) NS Mean 16; range 12–21 33 Contagion Dislocation: Fa, Fr, NL, St, Ed A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Clemens et al. [28, 48], USA HCP (n = 14) Inpatient units (n = 4) Range 5–7 NA NA Dislocation: Ed, Fr A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I High
 Colton and Pistrang [26], UK (England) Ad (n = 19) Inpatient units (n = 2), eating disorders Range 35–140 Mean 15.4; range 2–17 0 Contagion Dislocation: Fa, Id, Fr A, B, C, D, E, F, G, I, High
 Haynes et al. (2011)/Painter [19], UK (England) Ad (n = 10) Inpatient units (n = 2) Range 4 weeks to 36 months Range 13–19 40 Dislocation: Fr, St, Ed, NL, Id A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I High
Moses [20], USA Ad (n = 80) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 7.6 ± 3.9; range 3–31 Mean 15.3; range 13–18 59 Dislocation: Fr, NL, St A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Offord et al. [21], UK (England) Ad (n = 6) Inpatient units (n = 6), eating disorders NS Range 16–23 0 Contagion Dislocation: Fa, Id, Fr, Ed, St, NL A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Puotiniemi and Kyngas [29], Finland Ad (n = 1); P (n = 1) Previously an inpatient NS 16 0 Dislocation: Fa, Fr A, B, C, E, F, H Medium
Longitudinal descriptive survey (prospective)
 Anderson et al. [49], USA Ad (n = 424); FU (n = NS) Inpatient units (n = 5), substance abuse NS Mean 15.9 ± 1.3; range 13–18 49.5 Dislocation: Ed A, B, C, D, E, H Medium
 Brinkmeyer et al. [50], USA P (n = 47); FU-1 (n = 34); FU-2 (n = 25) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Median 6 Mean 13.11 ± 2.89; range 7–17 56 Dislocation: Fa, Ed A, B, C, D, E, F, I Medium
 Charlemagne [60], USA P (n = 167); FU (n = 134); HCP (n = 27) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 5.9 ± 3.4 Range 13 ± 2.7 48.5 Dislocation: Fa A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Czyz et al. [30], USA Ad (n = 448); FU (n = 338) Inpatients (n = NS) NS Mean 15.6 ± 1.41; range 13–17 29 Dislocation: Fa, Fr A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I High
 Larzelere et al. [51], USA Ad (n = 43); FU (n = 43) RTC (n = 1) Range 18–505; mean 181; median 15 Mean 13.0; range 6–17 48 Dislocation: Ed B, C, E, F, I Low
 Moses [20], USA Ad (n = 102); FU (n = 80) Inpatient unit (n = 1) NS Mean 15.3 ± 1.6; range 13–18 35 Dislocation: St A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Parmelee et al. [61], USA Ch and Ad (n = 90); FU (n = 77) Inpatient unit (n = 2) NS Mean 2.2 ± 3.5; range 4–17 64 Dislocation: Fa A, B, C, D Low
 King et al. [30], USA Ad (n = 57); FU (n = 57) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 24.9 ± 10.7 Mean 15.8 ± 1.3; range 11.5–17.8 42 Contagion A, B, C, E, F, G, I Medium
Longitudinal descriptive surveys (retrospective)
 Cawthorpe et al. [69], Canada Ad (n = 198) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Males: mean 95.67 ± 56.87; range 1–337 Females: mean 79.82; range 3–254 Males: mean 14.89 ± 1.28; range 12–18 Females: mean 14.77 ± 1.17; range 12–18 64 Contagion A, B, C, D, E, F, I Medium
 Shabat [52], USA Ch and Ad (n = 457) RTC (n = 50) Mean 90.6 Range 6–20 61 Dislocation: Ed A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I High
 Lakin et al. [62], USA Ch and Ad (n = 89) RTC (n = 1) Mean 58.6 ± 35.1; range 7–243 Mean 11.7; range 5–17 67 Dislocation: Fa A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I High
 Halfon et al. [47], France Ad (n = 137) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 10 months 10 days ± 9.3 Mean 17.8 ± 1.5; range 14–21 54 Dislocation: Ed A, B, C, D, F, I Medium
Cross-sectional descriptive surveys
 Moses [20], USA Ad (n = 102) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 7.6 ± 4.2; range 3–31 Mean 15.3 ± 1.5; range 13–19 91.3 Dislocation: St A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I High
 Thurber et al. [63], USA Ch and Ad (n = 50); P (n = 75); HCP (n = NS) Burn unit (n = 1); paediatric rehabilitation unit (n = 1); inpatient psychiatric unit (n = 1) Median 20; mean 24 ± 25; range 4–174 Mean 11 ± 3.5; range 3.9–18.6 70 Dislocation: Fa A, B, C, E, G, I Medium
Longitudinal descriptive survey (prospective)
 Taiminen et al. [70], Finland Ad (n = 12) Inpatient unit (n = 1) Mean 91.9 ± 73.2; range 7–200 Mean 15.5; range 12.3–17.9 0 Contagion A, B, C, D, E, I Medium
 Grey literature reports
 Street and Svanberg (2003), Svanberg and Street [22], UK (England and Wales) Ad (n = 107); P (n = 35); HCP (n = 115); interviews; questionnaire Inpatient units (n = 10); paediatric wards (n = 2); adult psychiatry ward (n = 1); ‘one-stop ‘service for young homeless people (n = 1) NS Mean 16.4 32 Contagion Dislocation: Fa, Fr, NL, Ed A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I High
 Tulloch et al. [46], UK (England) HCP (n = 42); questionnaire Independent and public CAMHS in England (n = 42 of 55, 76 %) Median 79 Median: 12 years (lower end of the range – 38 % of units); 18 years (upper end of the range – 77 % of units) NS Dislocation: Ed A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Tulloch et al. [46], UK (England) Ad (n = 19); P (n = 12); interviews; questionnaire Independent and public CAMHS in England (n = 42 of 55, 76 %) NA NA NA Dislocation: Fa A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 O’Herlihy et al. [45], UK (England and Wales) CAMHS units (n = 66); questionnaire Independent and public CAMHS in England and Wales (n = 66 of 80, 82.5 %) NS Mean 115 ± 181; range 0–2194 NS Dislocation: Ed, Fa A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 O’Herlihy et al. [45], UK (England and Wales) HCP (n = 245); questionnaire Independent and public CAMHS in England and Wales (n = 80) NA NA NA Dislocation: Ed A A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I High
 Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland [17], UK (Scotland) Ad (n = 29); HCP (n = 11); interviews; case note review All independent and public CAMHS in Scotland (n = NS) NS NS NS Dislocation: Ed, Fa The study method is not fully detailed (e.g. sampling recruitment, participants age, gender, type of analysis)
  1. Ad adolescent, Adm admission, CAMHS children and adolescent mental health services, Ch child, Ed education, Fa family, Fr friends, FU follow-up, HCP health-care professional, Id identity, NA not available, NL normal life, NS not stated, P parent, St stigma
  2. Quality key: A, clear statement of the aims of the study; B, adequate description of the context for the study; C, clear specification of research design and its appropriateness for the research aims, D, reporting of clear details of the sample and method of recruitment/sampling; E, clear description of data collection; F, clear description of data analysis provided; G, attempts made to establish rigour of data analysis; H, discussion of ethical issues/approval details; I, inclusion of sufficient original data to support interpretations and conclusions