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Table 1 Comparison of anxiety score reduction of various universal level FRIENDS programmes (in comparison with control groups)

From: Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based anxiety prevention programme for children: a preliminary quasi-experimental study in Japan

Author (year) Country Sample (age) N No. of sessions time Randomization Instruments Pre M (SD) Post M (SD) FU M (SD) Pre-post ES (Δ) Pre-FU ES (Δ)
Barrett and Turner (2001) AUS 10–12 year
M = 10.75
489 10 + 2 s
75 min
Randomized block design (by school) SCAS Teacher-I 27.00 (17.99)
Psychologist-I 26.76 (15.23)
C 27.44 (12.37)
Teacher-I 18.77 (14.45)
Psychologist-I 19.14 (11.89)
C 23.15 (13.04)
  T-I 0.46
P-I 0.50
C 0.35
 
Lowry–Webster et al. (2001) AUS 10–13 year 594 10 + 2 s
60 min
Randomized block design (by school) SCAS I 28.09 (18.45)
C 31.45 (14.76)
I 18.33 (14.07)
C 28.23 (17.80)
I (12 m FU) 16.66 (13.91)
C 27.54 (20.06)
I 0.53
C 0.22
I 0.62
C 0.27
Barrett, Sonderegger and Xenos (2003) AUS 7–19 year 320 10 s
60 min
Block design (randomization not specified) RCMAS I-CHN 12.67 (7.63)
C-CHN 9.41 (5.70)
I-YUG 12.89 (7.56)
C-YUG 14.75 (2.50)
I-CHN 6.50 (6.00)
C-CHN 12.04 (7.28)
I-YUG 6.26 (5.34)
C-YUG 14.75 (2.50)
  I 0.43
C 0.46
I 0.88
C 0.00
 
Lock and Barrett (2003) AUS 9–10 year, 14–16 year 733 10 + 2 s Randomized block design (by school) SCAS I 22.06 (13.94)
C 24.40 (12.74)
I 17.64 (12.95)
C 21.26 (12.60)
I (12 m FU) 14.89 (11.64)
C 17.30 (11.99)
I 0.32
C 0.25
I 0.52
C 0.56
Barrett, Lock and Farrell (2005) AUS 9–10 year, 14–16 year 692 10 + 2 s
60 min
Randomized block design (by school) SCAS H I 43.41 (10.81)
H C 42.32 (10.75)
M I 26.18 (2.46)
M C 26.91 (2.43)
L I 14.85 (5.36)
L C 14.34 (5.28)
H I 30.92 (10.89)
H C 28.53 (12.03)
M I 21.90 (10.13)
M C 21.28 (9.23)
L I 14.38 (8.79)
L C 13.71 (8.29)
H I 21.06 (13.71)
H C 26.65 (15.35)
M I 17.72 (10.61)
M C 18.93 (13.76)
L I 11.11 (9.12)
L C 12.41 (9.11)
H I 1.16
H C 0.51
M I 0.34
M C 0.39
L I 0.09
L C 0.12
H I 2.07
H C 0.58
M I 0.68
MC 0.56
L I 0.70
L C 0.37
Mostert and Loxton (2008) ZAF 12 year 46 5 s
120 min
Quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group SCAS I 42.12 (15.82)
C 40.14 (12.42)
I 37.48 (16.26)
C 38.05 (12.72)
I (6 m) 31.64 (16.61)
C 33.71 (16.24)
I 0.29
C 0.17
I 0.66
C 0.52
Gallegos (2008) MEX 8–13 year
M = 9.9
1030 10 + 2 s
75 min
Quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group SCAS I 25.82 (8.77)
C 27.57 (7.95)
I 24.89 (10.18)
C 26.42(10.14)
I (6 m) 22.40 (10.51)
C 24.31 (10.11)
I 0.11
C 0.15
I 0.39
C 0.41
Rose, Miller and Martinez (2009) CAN 4th
8–9 year
52 8 s
60 min
Block design (randomization not specified) MASC I 62.35 (17.00)
C 53.65 (19.82)
I 56.88 (20.33)
C 52.73 (16.50)
  I 0.32
C 0.05
 
Miller et al. (2011) CAN 4th–6th
M = 9.8
253 9 s
60 min
Randomized block design (By school) MASC I 47.10 (17.57)
C 47.64 (18.51)
I 45.17 (15.25)
C 42.38 (16.10)
I (17 m) 39.42 (13.40)
C 36.97 (16.68)
I 0.11
C 0.29
I 0.44
C 0.58
Miller et al. (2011) CAN 4th–6th
M = 9.77
533 9 s
60 min
Randomized block design (By school) MASC I 45.20 (19.10)
C 47.19 (17.73)
I 43.35 (20.31)
C 45.61 (18.70)
I (3 m) 38.77 (17.86)
C 42.10 (18.34)
I 0.10
C 0.09
I 0.34
C 0.29
Essau et al. (2012) GER 9–12 year
M = 10.91
638 10 + 2 s 60 min Randomized block design (By school) SCAS I 22.53 (12.3)
C 23.92 (12.2)
I 20.96 (11.7)
C 23.31 (11.9)
I (6 m) 18.56 (12.2)
C 24.44 (12.9)
I 0.13
C 0.05
I 0.32
C −0.04
Stallard et al. (2014) GBR 9–10 year 1448 9 s
60 min
Cluster randomized design (By school) RCADS30 Health-led 26.24 (15.56)
School-led 24.91 (14.32)
Usual-school 26.78 (16.32)
  Health-led 19.49 (14.81)
School-led 22.86 (15.24)
Usual-school 22.48 (15.74)
  I 0.43
I 0.14
C 0.26
Rodgers and Dunsmuir, (2015) GBR 12–13 year 62 10 s
60 min
Randomized design (individual) SCAS I 24.68 (13.19)
C 20.8 (16.5)
I 19.43 (8.97)
C 19.96 (14.93)
I (4 m) 12.06 (6.91)
C 16.16 (12.89)
I 0.40
C 0.05
I 0.96
C 0.28
  1. M Mean; SD Standard deviation; ES Effect size; Glass’s delta; I Intervention group; C Control group; H High; M Medium; L Low