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Table 5 Predicting the presence of disruptive behavior disorder, ADHD, and substance use disorder by ACEs and covariates in detained adolescent offenders

From: The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

Variables Disruptive behavior disorder ADHD Substance use disorder
Unadjusted model Adjusted modela Unadjusted model Adjusted modela Unadjusted model Adjusted modela
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
ACE total scoreb 1.29 (0.82–2.03) 1.07 (0.63–1.83) 1.28 (0.90–1.81) 1.15 (0.79–1.69) 1.47 (1.00–2.17)+ 1.42 (0.92–2.19)
Irritability scoreb 2.40 (1.46–3.95)*** 2.39 (1.41–4.05)** 1.68 (1.16–2.45)** 1.70 (1.15–2.52)** 1.69 (1.15–2.51)** 1.76 (1.15–2.60)**
ACE total scoreb * Irritabiliy scoreb 0.86 (0.58–1.27) 0.90 (0.53–1.54) 1.09 (0.78–1.51) 1.06 (0.72–1.56) 0.96 (0.68–1.35) 1.02 (0.66–1.58)
Age at incarcerationb 0.99 (0.64–1.53) 1.03 (0.64–1.64) 1.03 (0.73–1.46) 1.06 (0.73–1.53) 1.71 (1.16–2.54)** 1.92 (1.26–2.92)**
Foreign nationality 1.12 (0.47–2.68) 1.52 (0.58–4.00) 1.70 (0.85–3.42) 1.98 (0.94–4.19) 0.95 (0.46–1.97) 0.93 (0.41–2.10)
low SES 1.15 (0.43–3.05) 0.86 (0.30–2.52) 0.94 (0.42–2.10) 1.00 (0.43–2.33) 1.02 (0.44–2.36) 1.06 (0.42–2.66)
  1. ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ACE adverse childhood experience, SES socio-economic status, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratios
  2. aAdjusted for demographics, ACE total score, and irritability score, and interaction term ACE total score * irritability score
  3. bz-Transformed
  4. Significance (two sided), +  p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001