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Table 3 Relationships between child and family characteristics, emotional problems score and mood

From: Sleep and behavioural problems associate with low mood in Finnish children aged 4–12 years: an epidemiological study

  Emotional problems score Often unhappy, down-hearted or tearful
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Age in years 1.11 (1.04–1.19)* 1.08 (1.01–1.15)* 1.09 (1.03–1.15)** 1.06 (1.00–1.12)
Gender: girl 1.12 (0.83–1.50) 1.28 (0.94–1.76) 0.98 (0.75–1.26) 1.04 (0.79–1.36)
Biological parents living with child
 Both 0 0 0 0
 Mother only 2.61 (1.86–3.67)*** 1.99 (1.37–2.89)*** 2.26 (1.66–3.07)*** 1.88 (1.36–2.60)***
 Father only 2.86 (1.11–7.34)* 2.77 (1.01–7.65)* 2.98 (1.27–7.00)** 3.00 (1.23–7.29)*
 Child has siblings 0.71 (0.48–1.03) 0.84 (0.55–1.26) 0.81 (0.57–1.14)
Higher SES of parents living with child
 Manager 0 0
 Managerial employee 0.75 (0.42–1.33) 0.96 (0.56–1.65)
 White collar worker 0.82 (0.46–1.46) 1.19 (0.69–2.03)
 Entrepreneur 0.67 (0.32–1.37) 1.20 (0.64–2.22)
 Blue collar worker 1.27 (0.72–2.22) 1.53 (0.90–2.61)
Child has illness or disability 3.56 (2.56–4.94)*** 2.84 (2.00–4.02)*** 2.66 (1.96–3.62)*** 2.21 (1.61–3.05)***
Child has sleeping problems 5.19 (3.75–7.19)*** 4.31 (3.07–6.06)*** 3.18 (2.34–4.33)*** 2.70 (1.96–3.72)***
  1. Regression analysis examining emotional problems and mood as outcome variables and child and family characteristics as predictor variables. The emotional problems score was categorized as normal, borderline or abnormal (0–3; 4; 5–10 respectively) and the mood item dichotomized as “not true” and “somewhat/certainly true”
  2. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001