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Table 1 Comparisons between a nationwide sample of girls charged with violent offences and referred to a pretrial forensic psychiatric examination (n = 25) and their age- and offence-matched male counterparts

From: Do seriously offending girls differ from their age- and offence type-matched male counterparts on psychopathic traits or psychopathy-related background variables?

  Girls Boys Statisticsa p Effect size
PCL-YV
 Total score mean (SD) 19.76 (8.52) 20.32 (6.50) t = −0.261 0.795 d = −0.073
 Factor 1 (interpersonal) 1.56 (2.18) 1.68 (1.86) t = −0.209 0.835 d = −0.060
 Factor 2 (affective) 4.44 (2.38) 3.24 (2.33) t = 1.793 0.079 d = 0.518
 Factor 3 (behavioral) 6.44 (2.83) 7.64 (1.87) t = −1.770 0.083 d = 0.511
 Factor 4 (antisocial) 5.52 (2.62) 6.88 (1.74) t = −2.164 0.035 d = 0.624
 Total score > 30 3/25 (12.0 %) 3/25 (12.0 %) # 1.000 NA
 Total score > 25 8/25 (32.0 %) 7/25 (28.0 %) X2 = 0.095 0.758 φ = −0.044
 Total score > 20 16/25 (64.0 %) 14/25 (56.0 %) X2 = 0.333 0.564 φ = −0.082
Item mean (SD)
 Impression management 0.44 (0.58) 0.48 (0.51) t = −0.209 0.795 d = 0.060
 Grandiose sense of self-worth 0.32 (0.56) 0.40 (0.65) t = 0.469 0.641 d = 0.135
 Stimulation-seeking 1.44 (0.71) 1.92 (0.28) t = −3.142 0.003 d = 0.907
 Pathological lying 0.32 (0.69) 0.40 (0.76) t = −0.389 0.699 d = 0.113
 Manipulation for personal gain 0.52 (0.77) 0.36 (0.70) t = 0.769 0.446 d = 0.222
 Lack of remorse/guilt 1.32 (0.75) 0.92 (0.76) t = 1.876 0.067 d = 0.542
 Shallow affect 0.88 (0.83) 0.72 (0.69) t = 0.745 0.460 d = 0.215
 Callous/lack of empathy 1.00 (0.71) 0.72 (0.61) t = 1.495 0.141 d = 0.432
 Parasitic orientation 0.64 (0.76) 0.84 (0.80) t = −0.908 0.368 d = 0.262
 Poor anger control 1.36 (0.70) 1.84 (0.37) t = −3.024 0.004 d = 0.873
 Impersonal sexual behavior 0.80 (0.96) 0.36 (0.64) t = 1.912 0.062 d = 0.552
 Early problem behavior 1.20 (0.91) 1.68 (0.56) t = −2.245 0.039 d = 0.648
 Lack of goals 1.52 (0.71) 1.40 (0.76) t = 0.574 0.569 d = 0.166
 Impulsivity 1.56 (0.71) 1.92 (0.28) t = −2.357 0.023 d = 0.680
 Irresponsibility 1.28 (0.69) 1.64 (0.57) t = −2.034 0.048 d = 0.587
 Failure to accept responsibility 1.24 (0.60) 0.88 (0.73) t = 1.915 0.061 d = 0.553
 Unstable interpersonal relationships 1.00 (0.96) 0.28 (0.61) t = 3.166 0.003 d = 0.914
 Serious criminal behavior 1.48 (0.51) 1.60 (0.50) t = −0.840 0.405 d = 0.242
 Serious violation of conditional release 0.48 (0.65) 0.32 (0.48) t = 0.990 0.327 d = 0.286
 Criminal versatility 1.00 (0.82) 1.48 (0.71) t = −2.213 0.032 d = 0.639
Background variables
 Childhood (0–12 years) home
  Parents’ divorce 16/25 (64.0 %) 17/24 (70.8 %) X2 = 0.260 0.610 φ = 0.073
  Mother’s substance use problems 10/25 (40.0 %) 5/25 (20.0 %) # 0.217 NA
  Father’s substance use problems 14/24 (58.3 %) 17/24 (70.8 %) X2 = 0.820 0.365 φ = 0.131
  Mother’s psychiatric problems 5/25 (20.0 %) 8/25 (32.0 %) # 0.520 NA
  Father’s psychiatric problems 3/24 (12.5 %) 6/24 (25.0 %) # 0.461 NA
  Witnessing physical violence 13/25 (52.0 %) 12/25 (48.0 %) X2 = 0.080 0.777 φ = −0.400
  Subject of physical violence 15/25 (60.0 %) 9/25 (36.0 %) X2 = 2.885 0.089 φ = −0.240
  More than four children in the family 11/25 (44.0 %) 9/25 (36.0 %) X2 = 0.333 0.564 φ = −0.082
  Institutional/foster home placement 7/25 (28.0 %) 10/25 (40.0 %) X2 = 0.802 0.370 φ = 0.127
 Other childhood (0–12 years) variables
  Subject of sexual abuse 9/25 (36.0 %) 0/25 (0.0 %) # 0.001 NA
  Mental health contact 8/25 (32.0 %) 9/25 (36.0 %) X2 = 0.089 0.765 φ = 0.042
  Client of social services 15/25 (60.0 %) 18/25 (72.0 %) X2 = 0.802 0.370 φ = 0.127
 Criminality of near relatives
  Mother’s criminality 1/25 (4.0 %) 0/25 (0.0 %) # 1.000 NA
  Father’s criminality 7/24 (28.0 %) 8/24 (32.0 %) X2 = 0.097 0.755 φ = 0.045
  Delinquent sibling/s 8/25 (32.0 %) 10/25 (40.0 %) X2 = 0.347 0.556 φ = 0.083
  Homicide history of parents or near relatives 5/25 (20.0 %) 2/25 (8.0 %) # 0.417 NA
 School performance in primary and secondary schools
  Failure to pass grade at school 14/25 (56.0 %) 14/25 (56.0 %) X2 = 0.082 0.774 φ = −0.041
  Attending special education 11/25 (44.0 %) 14/25 (56.0 %) X2 = 0.720 0.396 φ = 0.120
Offence-related variables
 History of previous offending 19/25 (76.0 %) 21/25 (84.0 %) X2 = 0.500 0.480 φ = 0.100
 History of violent offending 8/25 (32.0 %) 12/25 (48.0 %) X2 = 1.333 0.246 φ = 0.163
 Current alcohol use disorder 15/25 (60.0 %) 15/25 (60.0 %) X2 = 0.000 1.000 φ = 0.000
 Intoxicated during index offence 15/25 (60.0 %) 22/25 (88.0 %) X2 = 5.094 0.024 φ = 0.319
 More than one offender 15/25 (60.0 %) 10/25 (40.0 %) X2 = 2.000 0.157 φ = −0.200
 More than one victim 3/25 (12.0 %) 5/24 (20.8 %) # 0.463 NA
 Victim-offender relationship
  Family or (ex-) intimate 9/24 (37.5 %) 0/24 (0.0 %) # 0.001 NA
  Acquaintance 11/24 (45.8 %) 5/24 (20.8 %) # 0.062 NA
  Stranger 4/24 (16.7 %) 19/24 (79.2 %) # <0.001 NA
  Index offence characterized with instrumental violence 7/25 (28 %) 9/25 (36 %) X2 = 0.368 0.544 φ = 0.086
  1. Independent samples t test (t), the Chi square test (χ2), and the Fisher’s exact test (#) are used for comparing the groups. Effect sizes are reported: d Cohen’s d, φ = phi
  2. Statistically significant differences are in italics
  3. NA not applicable