# Table 3 Differential item functioning and differential test functioning for the resilience scale

Subscales Items in questionnaire Gender (focal = boys)
n = 6123
School level (focal = secondary)
n = 6123
SEN (focal = yes)
n = 6071
EAL (focal = yes)
n = 6047
FSM (focal = yes)
n = 6071
DIF DTF DIF DTF DIF DTF DIF DTF DIF DTF
L-A LOR (SE) v2 (SE) L-A LOR (SE) v2 (SE) L-A LOR (SE) v2 (SE) L-A LOR (SE) v2 (SE) L-A LOR (SE) v2 (SE)
Family connection At home, there is an adult who…
Is interested in my school work 0.24 (0.07) 0.03 (0.03) −0.15 (0.07) 0.03 (0.03) 0.15 (0.09) 0.09 (0.07) −0.04 (0.09) 0.02 (0.02) 0.29 (0.08) 0.03 (0.03)
Believes that I will be a success −0.10 (0.07) 0.15 (0.08) 0.27 (0.10) 0.25 (0.09) -0.14 (0.10)
Wants me to do my best 0.17 (0.11) 0.34 (0.13) 0.25 (0.14) −0.19 (0.14) 0.14 (0.13)
Listens to me when I have something to say −0.22 (0.07) −0.08 (0.07) 0.48 (0.09) −0.08 (0.09) −0.24 (0.08)
School connection At school, there is an adult who…
Really cares about me 0.04 (0.06) 0.000 (0.003) 0.37 (0.07) 0.05 (0.04) −0.38 (0.09) 0.05 (0.04) 0.08 (0.08) 0.01 (0.01) −0.16 (0.08) 0.01 (0.01)
Tells me when I do a good job 0.03 (0.06) −0.02 (0.07) 0.28 (0.09) −0.21 (0.08) 0.09 (0.08)
Listens to me when I have something to say −0.11 (0.06) −0.18 (0.08) 0.03 (0.09) 0.04 (0.08) 0.18 (0.08)
Believes that I will be a success 0.04 (0.06) −0.23 (0.08) 0.12 (0.09) 0.08 (0.08) −0.09 (0.08)
Community connection Away from school, there is an adult who…
Really cares about me 0.39 (0.08) 0.05 (0.04) −0.15 (0.09) −0.001 (0.01) −0.05 (0.11) −0.01 (0.004) 0.19 (0.11) 0.01 (0.02) −0.05 (0.10) −0.01 (0.003)
Tells me when I do a good job −0.10 (0.08) 0.00 (0.09) −0.08 (0.10) −0.21 (0.10) −0.01 (0.10)
Believes that I will be a success 0.04 (0.08) 0.05 (0.09) 0.11 (0.11) 0.11 (0.10) −0.07 (0.10)
I trust −0.23 (0.08) 0.07 (0.09) 0.02 (0.10) −0.05 (0.10) 0.10 (0.10)
Participation in home and school life  I do things at home that make a difference (i.e. make things better) −0.07 (0.06) 0.001 (0.003) −0.05 (0.06) 0.10 (0.07) 0.13 (0.08) 0.001 (0.01) −0.11 (0.07) 0.02 (0.02) −0.01 (0.07) 0.01 (0.01)
I help my family make decisions −0.03 (0.06) −0.22 (0.06) −0.10 (0.08) 0.27 (0.07) −0.14 (0.07)
At school, I decide things like class activities or rules −0.01 (0.05) −0.22 (0.06) 0.01 (0.07) −0.06 (0.07) −0.02 (0.07)
I do things at my school that make a difference (i.e. make things better) 0.10 (0.06) 0.56 (0.06) −0.04 (0.08) −0.12 (0.07) 0.19 (0.07)
Self-esteem  I can work out my problems −0.10 (0.06) 0.03 (0.02) −0.35 (0.07) 0.07 (0.06) 0.17 (0.08) 0.01 (0.02) 0.21 (0.08) 0.02 (0.02) 0.18 (0.08) 0.01 (0.02)
I can do most things if I try 0.26 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07) −0.15 (0.09) −0.11 (0.09) −0.09 (0.08)
There are many things that I do well −0.11 (0.06) 0.21 (0.07) −0.07 (0.08) −0.16 (0.08) −0.13 (0.08)
Problem solving  When I need help, I find someone to talk to 0.36 (0.06) 0.06 (0.05) 0.08 (0.07) 0.004 (0.01) 0.04 (0.08) −0.01 (0.001) −0.21 (0.08) 0.02 (0.02) 0.01 (0.08) 0.003 (0.01)
I know where to go for help when I have a problem −0.20 (0.06) 0.06 (0.07) −0.01 (0.09) 0.11 (0.09) −0.13 (0.08)
I try to work out problems by talking about them −0.15 (0.06) −0.13 (0.07) −0.03 (0.09) 0.10 (0.08) 0.11 (0.08)
Peer support Are there students at your school who would…
Choose you on their team at school −0.40 (0.06) 0.12 (0.05) 0.19 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06) 0.26 (0.08) 0.04 (0.02) −0.10 (0.07) 0.07 (0.03) 0.10 (0.07) 0.004 (0.004)
Explain the rules of a game if you didn’t understand them −0.26 (0.06) 0.53 (0.07) −0.10 (0.08) −0.40 (0.08) −0.10 (0.08)
Invite you to their home −0.17 (0.06) −0.32 (0.06) 0.25 (0.08) 0.75 (0.08) 0.20 (0.07)
Share things with you 0.01 (0.06) −0.28 (0.07) 0.05 (0.08) −0.13 (0.08) 0.07 (0.08)
Help you if you hurt yourself −0.03 (0.07) 0.76 (0.08) −0.27 (0.09) −0.27 (0.09) 0.01 (0.08)
Miss you if you weren’t at school 0.76 (0.06) −0.23 (0.06) −0.16 (0.08) −0.01 (0.08) 0.03 (0.07)
Make you feel better if something is bothering you 0.28 (0.06) 0.24 (0.07) −0.29 (0.08) 0.08 (0.08) -0.13 (0.08)
Pick you for a partner 0.45 (0.07) −0.14 (0.07) 0.33 (0.08) 0.04 (0.09) 0.02 (0.08)
Help you if other students are being mean to you −0.03 (0.06) 0.16 (0.07) −0.17 (0.08) −0.12 (0.08) −0.14 (0.08)
Tell you you’re their friend −0.07 (0.07) 0.16 (0.08) −0.07 (0.09) 0.03 (0.09) −0.08 (0.09)
Ask you to join in when you are all alone −0.34 (0.07) −0.02 (0.07) −0.28 (0.09) −0.29 (0.09) −0.08 (0.08)
Tell you secrets 0.45 (0.06) 0.62 (0.06) 0.20 (0.08) 0.08 (0.08) −0.02 (0.07)
1. EAL English as an additional language, FSM free school meals, SEN special educational needs. DIF and DTF analyses for subscales with less than 3 items (participation in community life, empathy, and goals and aspirations) are not conducted. The size of the DIF is considered negligible if L-A-LOR < 0.43, moderate if between 0.43 and 0.64, and large if >0.64. The size of the DTF ν2 < 0.07 indicates small DTF, 0.07 ≤ ν2 ≤ 0.14 indicates medium DTF, and ν2 > 0.14 indicates large DTF