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Table 1 Relationship between patient characteristics and the number of restraint episodes

From: Characteristics of adolescents frequently restrained in acute psychiatric units in Norway: a nationwide study

  Number of restraint episodes N
1 2–4 5–9 ≥10
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total sample (patients) 97 (36) 88 (33) 35 (13) 47 (18) 267
Gender
 Female 59 (37) 49 (31) 17 (11) 33 (21) 158
 Male 38 (35) 39 (36) 18 (17) 14 (13) 109
Social characteristics
 Immigrant background
  Yes 11 (31) 15 (43) 4 (11) 5 (14) 35
  No 79 (37) 69 (32) 27 (13) 38 (18) 213
  Missing 7 (37) 4 (21) 4 (21) 4 (21) 19
 Living arrangement
  With both parents 32 (37) 26 (30) 8 (9) 21 (24) 87
  With one parent (with or without stepparent) 26 (41) 23 (37) 9 (14) 5 (8) 63
  Foster care or institution 36 (34) 36 (34) 16 (15) 19 (18) 107
  Other 1 (14) 3 (43) 1 (14) 2 (29) 7
  Missing 2 (67) 0 (0) 1 (33) 0 (0) 3
 Current involvement with the child protection service
  Yes 40 (33) 43 (35) 19 (15) 21 (17) 123
  No 37 (35) 33 (31) 12 (11) 23 (22) 105
  Missing 20 (51) 12 (31) 4 (10) 3 (8) 39
Mental health characteristics
 Main psychiatric disorder (Axis One onlya)
  No Axis One disorder 23 (58) 9 (22) 5 (13) 3 (8) 40
  Psychotic or pervasive developmental disorder 19 (50) 9 (24) 2 (5) 8 (21) 38
  Manic episode or bipolar affective disorder 4 (21) 7 (37) 5 (26) 3 (16) 19
  Internalizing disorder 28 (29) 33 (35) 15 (15) 19 (20) 95
  Externalizing disorder 23 (31) 30 (40) 8 (11) 14 (19) 75
 CGASb
  1–34 15 (23) 24 (37) 8 (12) 18 (28) 65
  35–44 23 (37) 22 (35) 8 (13) 9 (15) 62
  45–75 30 (43) 19 (27) 8 (11) 13 (19) 70
  Missing 29 (41) 23 (33) 11 (16) 7 (10) 70
Treatment characteristics
 Number of admissions in the study period
  1 46 (46) 39 (39) 8 (8) 8 (8) 101
  2–3 27 (31) 30 (34) 15 (17) 15 (17) 87
  4–19 24 (30) 19 (24) 12 (15) 24 (30) 79
 Length of admission (days)
  0–4 41 (52) 23 (29) 8 (10) 7 (9) 79
  5–21 31 (30) 38 (37) 18 (17) 17 (16) 104
  22–425 25 (30) 27 (32) 9 (11) 23 (27) 84
 Involuntary referral
  Yes 28 (27) 30 (29) 17 (16) 29 (28) 104
  No 66 (42) 54 (35) 18 (12) 18 (12) 156
  Missing 3 (43) 4 (57) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7
 Concomitant use of restraint
  Yes 3 (17) 5 (28) 2 (11) 8 (44) 18
  No 94 (38) 83 (33) 33 (13) 39 (16) 249
  1. aAxis One is the clinical psychiatric syndromes [23]
  2. b CGAS Children’s Global Assessment Scale (global psychosocial functioning)