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Table 2 Risk factors for more frequent restraint episodes

From: Characteristics of adolescents frequently restrained in acute psychiatric units in Norway: a nationwide study

  Unadjusted model Adjusted model
IRRb 95% CIa p IRRb 95% CIa p
Gender (ref: male)
 Female 1.69 .99–2.90 .055 2.04 1.1–3.74 .021
Social characteristics
Immigrant background (ref: yes)
 No 1.09 .37–3.18 .876    
Living arrangement (ref: with both parents)
 With one parent (with or without stepparent) .42 .19–.94 .034    
 Foster care or institution .81 .42–1.57 .530    
 Other 1.18 .40–3.46 .767    
Current involvement with the child protection service (ref: no)
 Yes .85 .46–1.57 .610    
Mental health characteristics
Main psychiatric disorder (ref: no Axis One disorder)
 Psychotic or pervasive developmental disorder 4.08 1.50–11.09 .006    
 Manic episode or bipolar affective disorder 6.45 1.93–21.52 .002    
 Internalizing disorder 3.85 2.09–21.52 <.001    
 Externalizing disorders 3.74 1.99–7.05 <.001    
Global psychosocial functioning
 CGAS (ref 45–75)
  1–34 2.35 1.27–4.35 .006 2.59 1.34–5.04 .005
  35–44 1.48 .67–3.26 .334 1.70 .71–4.11 .236
Treatment characteristics
Number of admissions in the study period (ref: 1)
 2–3 2.33 1.07–5.09 .034 2.32 1.08–4.95 .030
 4–19 2.78 1.40–5.51 .003 3.28 1.76–6.13 <.001
Length of last admission in days (ref: 1–4)
 5–21 1.12 .55–2.28 .757 1.02 .51–2.03 .956
 22–425 2.43 1.14–5.20 .022 2.63 1.21–5.66 .014
Involuntary referral (ref: no)
 Yes 1.70 .93–3.08 .083    
Concomitant use of restraint (ref: no)
 Yes 3.97 2.01–7.84 <.001 3.44 1.90–6.22 <.001
  1. Based on zero-truncated Poisson regression analysis
  2. a CI confidence interval
  3. b IRR incidence rate ratio