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Table 5 Aggression and empathy scores for identified clusters and results of cluster comparisons

From: Distinct profiles of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescents: associations with cognitive and affective empathy

  Re pro AGG (n = 62) Re AGG (n = 101) Low AGG (n = 78) Re pro AGG versus re AGG Re pro AGG versus low AGG Re AGG versus low AGG
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) p p p
Aggression (RPQ)          
Reactive aggression 16.06 (4.00) 11.52 (2.60) 4.81 (1.80) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Proactive aggression 11.53 (3.60) 3.21 (2.19) 1.35 (1.39) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Total aggression 27.60 (6.14) 14.74 (3.22) 6.15 (2.50) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Empathy (BES)          
Cognitive empathy 34.18 (5.15) 37.30 (4.23) 37.40 (4.11) <0.001 <0.01 ns
Affective empathy 31.74 (5.73) 36.32 (7.39) 35.95 (7.35) <0.01 =0.032 ns
Total empathy 65.91 (7.80) 73.61 (10.08) 73.35 (10.11) <0.001 <0.01 ns
  1. BES Basic Empathy Scale, RPQ Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, re pro AGG reactive-proactive aggression cluster, re AGG reactive aggression cluster, low AGG low aggression cluster
  2. p values refer to Bonferroni adjusted post hoc comparisons between identified aggression clusters with age and gender as covariates