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Table 6 Aggression and empathy scores for boys and girls and results of gender comparisons within identified clusters and the total study sample

From: Distinct profiles of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescents: associations with cognitive and affective empathy

  Re pro AGG Re AGG Low AGG Total sample
Girls (N = 16) Boys (N = 46) Girls (N = 39) Boys (N = 62) Girls (N = 32) Boys (N = 46) Girls (N = 87) Boys (N = 154)
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Aggression (RPQ)                 
Reactive aggression 15.56 (3.29) 16.24 (4.24) 11.95 (2.37) 11.27 (2.72) 4.97 (1.88) 4.70 (1.76) 10.05 (4.75) 10.79 (5.42)
Proactive aggression 9.75a (1.98) 12.15b (3.85) 3.03 (2.10) 3.32 (2.25) 1.13 (1.12) 1.50 (1.49) 3.56c (3.55) 5.42d (5.20)
Total aggression 25.31 (4.18) 28.39 (6.54) 14.97 (3.48) 14.60 (2.10) 6.09 (2.52) 6.20 (2.51) 13.61a (7.62) 16.21b (9.69)
Empathy (BES)                 
Cognitive empathy 34.75 (5.71) 33.98 (5.00) 37.43 (4.20) 37.21 (4.28) 38.50a (3.73) 36.63b (4.21) 37.33a (4.50) 36.07b (4.67)
Affective empathy 33.94 (5.87) 30.98 (5.55) 38.49a (5.23) 34.95b (8.22) 38.62c (5.97) 34.09d (7.71) 37.70c (5.85) 33.51d (7.51)
Total empathy 68.69 (8.78) 64.95 (7.29) 75.92 (11.04) 72.16 (11.04) 77.12c (8.29) 70.71d (10.52) 75.03c (8.69) 69.8d (10.31)
  1. RPQ Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, BES Basic Empathy Scale, re pro AGG reactive-proactive aggression cluster, re AGG reactive aggression cluster, low AGG low aggression cluster
  2. Subscripts (a, b) denote significant gender differences (p < 0.05)
  3. Subscripts (c, d) denote significant gender differences (p < 0.01)