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Table 2 Mean (standard deviations) of characteristics of non-clinical adolescents (NC), clinical controls without NSSI (CC), adolescents with NSSI disorder (NSSI), and adolescents with NSSI and BPD (NSSI + BPD), as well as ANOVA with orthogonal contrasts and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) between non-clinical and clinical groups (NC vs. rest), clinical controls and NSSI (CC vs. NSSI and NSSI + BPD), and NSSI disorder vs. Borderline personality disorder (NSSI vs. NSSI + BPD)

From: Temperament and character traits in female adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury disorder with and without comorbid borderline personality disorder

Characteristic NC CC NSSI NSSI + BPD NC vs. rest Cohen’s CC vs. Cohen’s NSSI vs. Cohen’s
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)   d NSSI total d NSSI + BPD d
YSR (n = 57) (n = 28) (n = 47) (n = 11) t (139)   t (139)   t (139)  
Total 57.60 (18.70) 81.80 (21.60) 105.38 (29.97) 134.28 (22.40) 12.56** 2.22 7.04** 1.55 4.03** 1.02
YSR exta 9.79 (6.56) 12.38 (6.45) 17.47 (9.15) 30.76 (7.82) 6.77** 1.43 4.58** 1.51 3.50** 1.52
YSR int 9.83 (6.46) 23.68 (9.56) 32.49 (9.53) 41.18 (8.68) 14.66** 2.76 6.22** 1.44 3.10** 0.94
BDIb 7.02 (7.20) 21.89 (12.68) 33.40 (12.17) 43.20 (13.29) 13.17** 2.39 4.70** 1.31 1.82* 0.81
BSL-95 (n = 57) (n = 25) (n = 38) (n = 9) t (125)   t (125)   t (125)  
Totala 47.67 (28.69) 117.31 (68.98) 182.84 (68.26) 240.55 (70.52) 11.31** 2.42 4.01** 1.38 1.46* 0.86
Dysphoriac 20.56 (8.98) 26.40 (10.23) 30.53 (6.72) 33.04 (6.93) −2.27 1.13 −.546 0.67 −.110 0.38
      t (94.85)   t (34.51)   t (16.74)  
Self-perceptiona 3.63 (4.37) 15.13 (14.98) 28.10 (17.06) 41.85 (20.82) 11.65** 1.85 4.30** 1.14 2.12 0.79
      t (96.16)   t (34.61)   t (26.40)  
Affect regulationb 6.04 (6.33) 19.48 (11.99) 28.66 (11.29) 36.67 (7.12) 13.42** 2.59 4.54** 1.31 2.95* 0.77
Self-destructionb 1.46 (2.38) 9.20 (7.91) 25.66 (11.55) 34.37 (7.88) 16.28** 3.12 8.17** 2.31 2.21** 0.81
Social isolationb 4.09 (4.97) 12.58 (9.65) 21.87 (12.66) 29.33 (10.46) 10.38** 1.96 4.31** 1.21 1.81* 0.62
Hostilityb 2.34 (3.14) 4.64 (4.41) 8.82 (5.92) 14.89 (5.82) 8.36** 1.58 4.69** 1.35 2.74** 1.05
Intrusionsa 1.34 (2.11) 6.32 (6.37) 12.13 (7.50) 20.33 (12.08) 10.51** 1.77 4.58** 1.15 1.65 0.99
JTCI (n = 51) (n = 26) (n = 46) (n = 11) t (130)   t (130)   t (130)  
Novelty seeking (T)a 47.29 (8.20) 43.00 (8.62) 48.20 (11.61) 56.00 (8.31) 0.66 0.20 3.42** 0,96 2.39** 0.72
Harm avoidance (T) 49.33 (10.18) 59.38 (8.59) 61.35 (11.10) 69.64 (8.51) 7.32** 1.47 2.34** 0,66 2.44** 0.79
Reward dependence (T) 57.06 (8.37) 52.04 (9.20) 49.96 (10.77) 45.91 (12.03) −4.18** 0.79 −1.64 0,39 −1.24 0.37
Persistence (T) 50.22 (10.21) 53.73 (9.93) 45.09 (11.74) 35.27 (9.70) −2.71** 0.54 −4.92** 1.31 −2.74** 0.88
Self-directedness (C) 52.22 (10.41) 43.88 (10.45) 33.22 (11.70) 26.73 (9.81) −8.51** 1.68 −4.97** 1.32 −1.78 0.58
Cooperativeness (C) 53.75 (8.89) 56.88 (9.21) 54.93 (11.77) 46.27 (9.70) −0.54 0.11 −2.41* 0.62 −2.56** 0.78
Self-transcendence (C) 49.43 (9.58) 53.92 (10.68) 50.02 (9.12) 50.82 (11.81) 1.15 0.21 −1.38 0.34 0.24 0.08
BIS (n = 28) (n = 21) (n = 29) (n = 8) t (82)   t (82)   t (82)  
Impulsivity (BIS) 20.76 (3.15) 20.06 (3.47) 22.97 (3.94) 26.85 (2.78) 2.99** 0.77 4.70** 1.45 2.78** 1.07
Attentional 15.61 (4.01) 14.90 (3.16) 18.25 (4.10) 20.88 (1.89) 2.67** 0.72 4.24** 1.55 1.77* 0.72
Non-planning 25.52 (4.33) 24.59 (5.13) 27.47 (5.76) 34.63 (5.07) 2.72** 0.68 4.27** 1.24 3.51** 1.31
Motor 21.16 (3.96) 20.70 (3.97) 23.21 (6.90) 25.04 (4.04) 1.46 0.39 2.24* 0.70 0.89 0.29
  1. YSR Youth self report (ext = externalizing, int = internalizing); BDI Beck Depression Inventory-II; JTCI Junior Temperament and Character Inventory; BIS Barratt Impulsiveness Scale
  2. Bootstrapped and Bonferroni-Holm corrected p values * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01
  3. a log transformation, b root transformation, c reciprocal transformation